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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月16日 08:52:34
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Ethnic advertising种族广告One message, or many?要一个还是多个声音?The uses and limitations of ethnic ads种族广告的使用和限制IN THE television series Mad Men, a 1960s adman makes a pitch to a television-maker whose sales are flat.电视剧广告狂人,描述了二十世纪六十年代的一个广告制作人向电视制作人推销其对付销售平淡的招数。Among Negroes sales are actually growing, he chirps.他很兴奋地提出黑人的购买额确实在上升。He proposes making integrated ads that appeal to both black and white consumers.他建议制作一体化广告以吸引黑人和白人消费者。His idea bombs.他的想法遭到狂轰烂炸。This being the era of segregation, one of his listeners wonders if mixed-race ads are even legal.那时还处于种族隔离时期,其中一个在场人员甚至怀疑种族混合的广告是否合法。Such days are long gone.今非昔比。Americas minorities will eventually be a majority of the population:根据最新的人口普查资料显示,by 2045, according to the most recent census.至2045年,美国的少数族裔将最终在人数上成为主流大众。Advertisers have noticed.广告商知晓这趋势。Many now favour cross-cultural ads that emphasise what black, Hispanic and Asian-American consumers have in common.如今许多广告商热衷于拍跨文化的广告,强调黑人、西班牙人和亚裔美国人的消费共性。This approach is thought to work well with the young, who often listen to the same music, eat the same food and wear similar clothes regardless of their ethnic background.这一方法非常对年轻一代人的胃口,这些年轻人不管是何种族背景,他们通常听同一首歌,吃同一种食物和穿相似的衣。Ogilvy amp; Mather, a big ad agency, formed OgilvyCulture in 2010 as a unit specialising in cross-cultural marketing.广告业巨头奥美于2010年组建了奥美文化作为一个业务单元专门从事跨文化营销。The ethnic ad model has not changed since the 1960s, says Jeffrey Bowman, head of OgilvyCulture.奥美文化的部门主管杰弗瑞·鲍曼说种族广告模式自从二十世纪六十年代以来一成不变。It was the census data that made Ogilvy change its model.正是人口调查资料让奥美改变了其营销模式。In 2010 Burger King stopped employing ethnic agencies such as LatinWorks, which specialised in the Hispanic market, to address its consumers as a whole rather than taking a segmented approach.2010年快餐连锁品牌汉堡王炒掉了如LatinWorks那些专攻西班牙市场,具有种族色的广告代理商。汉堡王将顾客视为一体而不再采取细分的方式。Yet some admen feel ethnicity remains relevant.但是有些广告人仍感到种族与广告还是有千丝万缕的关系。Every ten years we go through a rethink of targeted versus one voice,每隔十年,我们会重新考虑反对传播一个声音的广告says McGhee Williams Osse, co-chief executive of Burrell, a Chicago-based agency specialising in the African-American market.专攻非洲裔市场,总部位于芝加哥的Burrell公司的联合行政长官 McGhee Williams Oss说道,She argues that ethnic origin is the key to peoples identity, much more than education, income, religion, sex and sexual orientation. She would say that, of course.她认为种族血缘是人的身份认同的主要因素,比教育、收入、宗教、性和性取向等更重要。她是这样说的,千真万确。Maurice Levy, the boss of Publicis Groupe, the French ad giant that owns 49% of Burrell, says that ethnic advertising makes sense for advertisers that are very big, or very specialised.法国广告业巨头阳狮集团拥有Burrell49%的股票份额。阳狮的老板马千里说,种族广告对大公司或专业型公司还是有商业意义的。A maker of cream for black skin, for example, will probably not bother marketing it to Asians.例如,为黑人制造的面霜就没有必要进军亚洲市场了。Nestle, a huge food firm, aims some ads at Hispanics, Americas largest minority.食品巨擘雀巢公司针对美国最大的少数族裔西班牙裔制作了一些广告。It recruited four Hispanic mothers to blog on a new bilingual website, El Mejor Nido, offering tips about parenting and healthy eating.它招聘了4名西班牙裔母亲在其新设双语版的 El Mejor Nido 网上写客,提供为人父母之道和健康饮食的小贴士。Hispanics are younger than other Americans, have more children and spend more on food, says Juan Motta, who heads the California-based unit running Nestles Hispanic campaign in the ed States,负责雀巢西班牙裔广告促销的美国加利福尼亚分部主管胡安·莫塔说,西班牙裔人比其他美国人更年轻,育有更多小孩且更舍得在食品上花钱。which promotes both the firms Latin American brands, such as La Lechera and Abuelita, and the rest of its larder.该分部主要负责促销公司的两个拉丁美洲品牌如La Lechera 和Abuelita和其他的食品柜。McDonalds has been a pioneer of ethnic advertising since the 1960s.自从二十世纪六十年代,麦当劳一直是种族广告的先驱者。Minorities represent about 40% of its customers in America.在美国少数民族裔占其消费者总数的40%。Neil Golden, the firms American chief marketing officer, argues that other Americans often follow trends set by ethnic minorities.麦当劳主要负责美国市场首席营销官尼尔·戈登认为其他美国人常跟在少数族裔掀起的潮流后面。So he watches minorities for insights he can use in ads aimed at the general market.故他深入地了解少数族裔就可将其特色用于针对整个市场的广告中。In 2010 McDonalds learned that African-Americans liked sweeter, weaker caramel mocha, so it started offering such blends everywhere, with great success.2010年麦当劳得知非洲裔美国人喜欢更甜一点,咖啡味更淡一点的焦糖卡。故麦当劳开始到处提供这种混合物,结果一跑打响。A similar thing happened with its mango and pineapple smoothies, a big hit with Hispanics.它的芒果和凤梨冰沙也如法炮制,在西班牙裔人中大受欢迎。McDonalds featured the drinks in restaurants nationwide and they quickly overtook strawberry banana, the traditional favourite.麦当劳将此类饮品推广至遍布全国的门店,结果一夜之间便取代了传统畅销品草莓香蕉饮料。David Burgos, co-author of a book on marketing to the new majority,David Burgos和别人合写了一本针对新生大众营销的书。says that in spite of the increasing importance of minority consumers, advertisers still put ethnic ads into a separate budget—which tends to be cut first when the economy goes sour.该书上说尽管少数族裔消费者的重要性日益俱增,广告商仍将种族广告单独预算—一旦经济不景气,首先便拿这块预算开刀。Only 7% of marketing dollars are spent on targeted ethnic campaigns, although nearly half of Americans belong to ethnic minorities.尽管少数族裔占了将近一半的美国人口,但只有7%的营销费用花在针对种族的广告活动上。He thinks ad-agency staff need to be more diverse.他认为广告机构应招聘各种族的工作人员以使营销更多样化。Getting the right ethnic perspective is tricky.在广告中从不同种族角度看问题这是非常高难度的工作。Hispanics are a varied lot.同为西班牙人却迥然不同。An ad that delights Cuban-Americans may irritate migrants from Venezuela.能让古巴裔美国人捧腹大笑的广告可能会让委内瑞拉移民暴跳如雷。Asians are hardly monolithic, either.亚洲人也很是众口难调。Even the wittiest Korean catchphrases will provoke only bafflement in Chinatown.即便是韩国的警言妙句也可能令唐人街的中国人迷惑不解。Saul Gitlin of Kang amp; Lee, an agency specialising in selling to Asian-Americans, argues that recent Chinese and Korean immigrants are best reached with communications in their mother tongue.专门针对亚洲裔美国人的广告公司Kang amp; Lee的Saul Gitlin认为和新一代的中国和韩国的移民用其母语沟通能收到最好的效果。They are generally ignored by advertisers, however, with the exception of financial firms.但是除了金融公司做到这一点外,广告商一般都置若罔闻。This is a mistake, he reckons:广告商的做法大错特错,他推测:the median household income of Asian-Americans is some ,000 higher than that of non-Hispanic whites.亚洲裔美国人的家庭收入中值比非西班牙裔白人还高10,000美元。Many modern Mad Men think digital media will allow them to know their audiences better, and feed them more precisely-tailored messages.许多现代的广告狂人认为数字媒体能让他们更加了解受众,从而更易提供量身定制的信息来满足他们的需求。This can be costly.这要付出很高的代价。But many consumers seem to like it.但是许多消费者看来很喜欢这样。When Latinas disagree with something the four mommy bloggers at El Mejor Nido have written, they can go to the El Mejor Nido Facebook page, and let loose.如果拉丁裔美国人不喜欢在 El Mejor Nido网站上4位母亲所写的客观点,他们可以移步至El Mejor Nido脸谱网,可在此畅所欲言。 /201305/239038

  

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  Business this week本周经济要闻Google all but abandoned its opposition to a recent court ruling in Europe that gives people the “right to be forgotten” on the internet. It had said that the decision would curtail freedom of information, but Google has now set up a web page through which people can request that links be removed to an article about them that they consider to be outdated or an invasion of privacy. More than 41,000 people made such a request in the first four days after the web page went live.欧洲最近法庭裁决给予人们在因特网上有“遗忘的权利”,谷歌差一点放弃了对此裁决的异议。谷歌称此裁决将遏制信息自由。但是谷歌已经建立起一个网页,通过该网页,人们可以要求删除那些他们认为已经过时的或是有侵犯他们隐私的文章的连接。超过41,000位公众在网页正式上线的后的四天里提出了这项要求。Apple heralded its forthcoming update to the operating system that powers its devices as the biggest since 2008. The new features on iOS 8 will include improvements to messaging and e-mail—a direct response to the growing competition from Facebooks WhatsApp and to apps provided by Googles Android operating system.苹果暗示即将更新他们的操作系统,而正是目前尚在使用的操作系统帮助苹果手机成为08年以来规模最大的通讯设备。iOS 8的新特点包括改进短消息和邮件的传送,此举直接回应美国社交网站的WhatsApp通讯应用程序,同时也是向谷歌的安卓操作系统提供的应用程序叫板。Not-so-sunny outlook前景不妙America proposed stiff tariffs on imports of Chinese solar panels. An earlier tariff on the components used to make the panels was circumvented by Chinese firms outsourcing the components to Taiwan and then assembling the panels in China. America claims Chinas solar industry has undercut competition by receiving huge state subsidies. Although American solar-panel makers applauded the decision, cheaper Chinese panels have been a boon to solar power in America: capacity rose by 41% in 2013.美国提议对从中国进口太阳能电池板征收严苛的进口关税。早前美国政府主要是对那些用于制造面板的组件征收关税,而中国公司为了规避此类关税将组件的制造业务外包给台湾,然后在中国大陆进行组装。美国声称中国的太阳能产业通过获得大笔的国家补贴而削弱竞争。尽管美国太阳能电池板的制造商赞成这个决议,但是更廉价的中国太阳能电池板对美国的太阳能发电是一种恩惠:发电量在2013年上涨了41%。A 16% rise in imports from China helped push Americas trade deficit in April to 47 billion, the highest monthly figure for two years. Total imports were 240.6 billion, a monthly record, driven by Americans buying more cars and phones from abroad.四月份,从中国进口货物增长了16%,这也使得美国的贸易逆差增长到470亿,这是两年来单月最高纪录。单月的总共的进口额是2406亿,源于美国人从国外购买更多的车和手机。Australias economy grew by 3.5% in the first quarter compared with the same period last year. The figure was higher than expected, boosted in part by the demand for housing amid low interest rates.澳大利亚今年第一季度的经济与去年同一季度相比增长3.5%。增长量高于预期估计值,增长的原因部分是在低利率的背景下住房需求量的增加。The average house price in Britain rose in May to 186,512, according to Nationwides index, up by 11% from May 2013. The mutual bank reported “tentative signs” of cooling, as tighter standards for mortgage approvals kick in, though it was “too early to say” whether this would dampen demand. The average house price in London was 362,699 in the first quarter, according to an earlier Nationwide survey.根据全国指数,英国的平均房价从2013年5月至今年5月增长了11%,目前平均房价达186,512英镑。因为更为严格的抵押贷款审批标准正在逐步实施,尽管现在判断这项措施能否抑制需求还为时过早,但互助报道房价有初步遇冷的迹象。据更早的全国范围内的调查,伦敦第一季度的平均房价是362,699英镑。Having a say on pay薪酬话语权西雅图提高最低工资待遇The council in Seattle approved a rise in the local minimum wage to 15 an hour, the highest rate in any American city or state and twice as much as the federal minimum of 7.25. It will be phased in over the next few years. Eight states and Washington, DC, have increased their minimum-wage rates this year amid a national debate about inequality.西雅图委员会批准提高当地最低工资到每小时15美元,高于美国任何一个城市或州,是联邦政府规定的最低小时工资标准7.25美元的两倍。它将在未来的几年逐步实施。8个州和华盛顿特区在一场全国性范围内关于不平等的讨论中争取到今年增长他们最低工资的权利。Standard amp; Poors put its rating for BNP Paribas on “credit watch” until the outcome of an investigation in America into the French banks alleged violation of sanctions against countries such as Iran becomes clear. The American government is reportedly thinking of imposing a 10 billion fine on BNP. The size of the penalty has outraged the French, with one minister warning it would be detrimental to negotiations over transatlantic trade.美国的一份调查报告显示,法国巴黎涉嫌违反了针对伊朗等国家的制裁决议,由此标准普尔将法国巴黎的信用等级降为“信用警告”。据报道美国政府考虑对法国巴黎处以高达100亿美元罚款。处罚的金额使得法国不满,其中一位部长警告说此种做法将会对环大西洋的贸易谈判不利。Japans Dai-ichi Life Insurance agreed to buy Protective Life, which is based in Alabama. The 5.7 billion deal is the biggest takeover yet by a Japanese life-insurance firm of a foreign competitor.日本的第一人寿保险同意收购位于阿拉巴马州的美国护生保险公司,日本这家人寿保险公司的收购金额是57亿美元,目前为止,这个金额也使得此次收购案成为外国竞争者收购美国企业最大收购案。The European Commission gave the go ahead for Lithuania to adopt the euro next year. The Baltic state will be the 19th country to enter the euro zone, though it could be the last for some time. Other EU members in eastern Europe have not yet signed up to the exchange-rate mechanism through which their currencies must track the euro before joining the currency union.欧洲委员会同意明年立陶宛使用欧元。波罗的海国家将是第19个进入欧元区的国家,尽管它可能是目前一段时间最后一个进入欧元区的国家。而东欧各国在加入欧元区之前他们还没有签署汇率机制,此项机制旨在促使欧洲各国的货币单位与欧元挂钩。Jersey issued its first bond on the capital markets. The British dependency is taking advantage of low interest rates to borrow 250m so it can build cheaper social housing for its residents.泽西岛在资本市场发布它的第一抵押债券。英国属地利用低利率筹措了2亿5千万英镑,此笔款项用于为他们的居民建造更廉价的社会保障性住房。Valeant Pharmaceuticalsand William Ackman, an activist investor, upped the ante in their joint bid for Allergan, the maker of Botox. Valeant increased the cash portion of the 53 billion offer and pledged to take it directly to shareholders if Allergans board continued to oppose it. Mr Ackman said he would try to oust six Allergan boardmembers at a shareholders meeting.国际制药公司和维权投资者威廉˙奥克曼,提高他们联合竞标肉毒杆菌的制造商阿勒根的报价。如果阿勒根董事会继续反对,国际制药公司将增加报价中530亿美元的现金部分,并承诺把它直接给股东。奥克曼先生说他将设法在股东大会上驱逐6个阿勒根董事会成员。Robots of the world, unite!全世界的机器人,联合起来!The International Federation of Robotics reported that China was the biggest buyer of industrial robots last year, snapping up 36,500 units (Japan has the largest number of robots in operation). Around 179,000 robots were sold worldwide. Some think that factory owners prefer them to riot-prone workers.国家机器人联盟报道中国是去年工业机器人最大的购买者,抢购了36,500个工业机器人(日本是使用机器人作业最多的国家)。全世界大概卖出179,000个机器人。大家普遍认为与有暴乱倾向的工人相比,厂主更喜欢使用机器人。 201406/308594Is animal cloning for real? I want to have my cat cloned.动物真的可以克隆吗?我想克隆家里的猫。Well, animal cloning technology exists, but pet cloning isnt quitethere yet. And it may never be.动物克隆确实存在,但是,宠物克隆现在还没有。估计以后也不会有。Why not? I could think lots of people could want to have copiesof their pets.为什么不呢?我觉得有不少人想克隆宠物吧?Thats just a problem. A clone isnt a copy. Its a separate, individual organism.因为你得考虑这样一个问题:克隆并非复制。克隆是独立的生物个体。The only thingclone of Mr. Wolfs and Mr. Wolfs of themselves have in common is their genetic sequence.沃夫先生的克隆产物和生物体本身唯一的共同点在于基因序列。The only thing? Isnt that everything?只是基因序列吗?不是所有的都相同?Apparently not! As cloning technology has improved, more and more evidence has come out ofclones that dont look alike or act alike.当然不是!随着克隆科技的不断发展,越来越多的明显示克隆并非看起来一样或行为一样。For example, Ted Friend and Greg Archer, both at Texas Aamp; M, have cloned piglets.比如,德州农工大学的Ted Friend 和Greg Archer教授克隆了一批小猪。They report that there is just as much variation in appearance among the clones as among thenon-clones.报告显示在克隆猪和正常繁殖的猪并无二致,都存在生物变异。Some have bristly coats, others not; some have more teeth, some fewer.有的鬓毛较多,有的没有鬓毛。有的有的牙齿更多;有的牙齿更少。But wouldnt a clone of Mr. Wolf at least have its charming personality?克隆的宠物猫至少保留了讨人喜欢的个性吧?Maybe not. The worlds first cloned cat was made by Duane Kraemer, also at Texas A amp; M.也许不会哦!同是德州农工大学的Duane Kraemer研究出了世界上第一只克隆猫。Hereports that the clone has a different personality altogether than its clone mother-its much morefriendly, in fact.克隆猫的性情和原来那只猫的性情大不同—友善了不少。 201404/293153

  

  

  

  Science and technolgy科学技术Geoengineering地理工程学Implicit promises包含着承诺A geoengineering experiment has come unstuck. But there will be more地理工程试验取得突破。可期待更多。FOR the past few years, a European collaboration called IMPLICC has been looking at what it might mean to engineer the climate,近几年在欧洲合作平台上,简称IMPLICC的组织,by reducing the amount of sunshine that reaches the Earths surface.持续对减少阳光直射地球为目的研究做探讨。A lot of IMPLICCs work, like much else in climate science, has taken the form of computer modelling.探讨是为了解该项气候工程的含义。IMPLICC和其他气候科学研究相似,较多采用电脑模拟程序。In its case the models try to mimic the effects of things like putting veils of reflective particles into the stratosphere,在这里,创造出的气候模型设法模拟出两种情况,其一是将层层的反光微粒放入平流层中,or brightening the clouds over the oceans.其二是增加海洋上空云朵对光线的反射度。This week the IMPLICC team and other interested parties met in Mainz, Germany, to discuss the results—for the various models have turned out to agree far better than many of their creators expected.IMPLICC团队与其他相关组织,这个星期在德国--迈因茨举行讨论。In particular, they suggest that particles in the stratosphere can indeed stop rising levels of greenhouse gases raising the overall global temperature, though in doing so they slightly cool the tropics while the poles warm a bit.多个模型结果的相符程度还比模型创造人所预计的更相似,加强了预测结果的可信度。尽管温室气体在持续的增加中,研究显示反光微粒能防止温室气体,造成全球气温的升高。Other things being equal, the models also agree that geoengineering tends to suppress the hydrologic cycle, with less evaporation and less rainfall.与此同时,预计到热带地区气温会微降, 南北极的气温则会微升。 所有其他因素不变,各模型一致显示水文循环会遭压制,代表将有较少的蒸发及降雨量。Some researchers, however, want to go beyond modelling.They wish to experiment in the real world.然而,有些科研人员则选择进行真正的实验。The highest-profile of these schemes has been part of a programme called SPICE, which is paid for mainly by Britains Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council.最受瞩目的是简称SPICE的组织。Much of SPICE takes place in computers and laboratories, but one part was to be an actual experiment—a tethered balloon with a kilometre-long hosepipe attached to it.SPICE主要是由EPSRC助资,大部分研究仍在使用电脑程序及实验室研究,一部分研究则在使用真实实验。The idea was to pump a small amount of water up to the balloon and thence out into the air, so as to assess the possibility of spraying out other substances at far greater heights.实验采用一公里长的输送管拴住气球。气球升空后,实验性地通过输送管在空气中喷洒水,为估计在更高气层中喷洒其他物质的可能性。This move to a practical project has proved controversial.转向这类真实实验模式是有它的争议点。Some people worry that tinkering deliberately with the atmosphere may cause more harm than good.有人担心,以粗浅的方法任意操纵大气层,弊会大于利。Others fear that if geoengineering is shown to work it will, by offering a palliative for the problem of global warming, let politicians put off difficult decisions that might lead to a permanent solution.此外,地理工程即使奏效,功效也不会持久。As Clive Hamilton, a philosopher critical of much of the thinking behind geoengineering research, pointed out to the meeting, though the environmental effects of such experiments may be nugatory,哲学家克利韦·汉密尔顿在会议中对地理工程研究背后的理念提出批评,指政治家可能借暂缓措施,推迟制定有难度的持久性对策。their effects on the way people think could be more profound, and much less easily contained.认为地理工程或对环境影响微不足道,但对人们的思考模式却有更深层及无法控制的影响。Cloud cover云盖In light of such thinking, in September 2011, a stakeholder committee consisting of a geographer,这类思考方向的浮现,促使利益相关者委员会于9月2011年成立。a sociologist, an atmospheric scientist, an engineer and an adviser to Friends of the Earth who had been appointed by the EPSRC told the SPICE merchants,EPSRC任命,由地理学家,社会学家,大气层科学家,工程师及地球的朋友各一位所组成。they needed to be more convincing about how the experiment would be explained, how it would fit into ideas about the future, and how its safety and wisdom could be vouched for publicly.委员会要求SPICE商家,对实验目的,未来环境展望的合适性,如何对公众提供研究操作上的安全及知识担保,向这几个方面做出更有说力的解释及持。A further complication was a patent application covering some relevant technology by Peter Davidson, a consultant engineer whom the EPSRC had asked to play a role in choosing what geoengineering work it should pay for.实验的执行更因工程顾问彼得·戴维森对相关技术做出专利权申请,而有所复杂化。Though this application had been filed before SPICE was proposed,戴维森同时受EPSRC委托,负责挑选可获资助的地理工程项目。and Mr Davidson both declared his interest and recused himself from discussions on SPICE team when advising EPSRC,戴维森先生在SPICE组成之前以提交专利申请,也呈报有关利益冲突并对EPSRC提供专业指导时,刻意回避针对SPICE团队的讨论。Matt Watson of Bristol university, SPICEs principle investigator, was sufficiently concerned about both the application and wider issues of the sort considered by the stakeholder committee that, this week, he cancelled the balloon experiment.尽管如此,身为SPICE主要调查员的布里斯托尔大学人员马特·沃森,对专利权申请及受趣益相关者委员会关注的广泛问题持有所顾忌,以取消这星期的气球实验。The meeting in Mainz also learned, though, of another experiment that has met with better fortune.迈因茨会议仍从另个实验有所获得。Last September a team led by researchers from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, in La Jolla, California, looked at whether clouds could be whitened artificiallyusing particles emitted from a boat.实验团队来至加利福尼亚—拉奥拉,斯克里普斯海洋学公共机构,探讨的是,利用船只排出的微粒体将云朵人工白化的可行性。Such brightening has been observed in the exhaust plumes of cargo ships for some time, but Lynn Russell, who ran the experiment, was still surprised by how much brightening the team saw.观察出能使云朵变白,实验人员琳·拉塞尔仍对实验成果,云朵的白化程度感到惊讶。Though Dr Russells experiment had been designed mainly to look at how clouds form naturally, it paves the way for future work on geoengineering.云朵若经白化,就能把更多阳光反射回太空。尽管货船排放出的废气羽状物以被拉塞尔的实验是为观察云朵的自然形成而设计,在此也为更多地理工程研究铺路。How that will affect attitudes to global warming remains to be seen.该实验会如何影响对全球变暖的态度,却仍无法预计。 /201307/249412

  

  As Robert Palmer sang in the mid 80s,You might as well faceit, youre addicted to love.80年代中期的罗伯特帕尔默曾经唱道:承认吧,你已坠入爱河。While that may or may not be true depending on who you are, its nosecret that addiction is a common phenomenon.虽然,这句歌词的意思因人而异,但我们都知道,沉迷某事物或某人是个普遍现象。Apart from serious addictions to drugs and alcohol, how many times have you heard someoneclaim that theyre absolutely addicted to chocolate? Or diet Coke.除了严重的毒瘾和酒瘾意外,你有多少次曾听到有人说他们对巧克力十分上瘾?Or broccoli? Well, maybe notbroccoli, but you get the point.或者说无糖可乐,或是花椰菜?也许不是花椰菜,但你知道我想说的是什么。But is it really possible to be a chocolate addict in the same waythat someone might be addicted to drugs?对巧克力上瘾真的会跟毒瘾一样吗?To answer that question we need to know what addiction is.要解答这个问题,我们需要知道什么是上瘾。Although the precise science ofaddiction is unclear, we do know that it involves the brain; addictive substances alter brainchemistry in such a way as to make the body crave more.虽然对上瘾还没有确切的定义,但我们都知道它跟大脑有关;上瘾的东西会以某种方式改变脑化学,从而使人体产生对该物的渴望。But what about chocolate?但怎么解释巧克力呢?Several studies indicate that chocolate addiction is for real.一些研究表明,对巧克力上瘾确实是存在的。Chocolatecontains a number of addictive substances, including caffeine and cannabinoids, chemicals similarto the ones that make marijuana a potent drug.巧克力包含很多容易上瘾的物质,如咖啡因、大麻类物质。Further studies found not only that chocolatefats trigger the release of pleasure-causing substances in the brain, but that chocolate contains achemical similar to amphetamine, a highly addictive drug.进一步研究发现,不仅巧克力脂肪能够促使大脑释放出使人体愉悦的物质,巧克力还含有一种和苯内胺很相似的化学物质。Does this mean that anyone who eats enough chocolate will become addicted?难道说任何吃过多巧克力的人都会上瘾吗?No. Some peoplecan eat all the chocolate they want and never get hooked.不是的。有些人可以想吃多少巧克力就吃多少而不上瘾。But chocolate does cause chemicalchanges in the brain that can result in a powerful craving.但巧克力确实会引起大脑的化学变化,从而产生一种强烈的渴望。Chocolate addiction is nowhere near aspotent or harmful as alcohol and drug addiction, of course.对巧克力上瘾可不是像毒瘾和酒瘾那样对人体有害。But if you find yourself unable to gothrough the day without at least one Hersheys Kiss, its not just in your mind.但如果你发现自己一天不吃上一块好时巧克力就不自在的话,不止是你脑中会这样想,Youre hooked.而是你确实是染上巧克力瘾了。 201403/279416

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