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2019年10月17日 22:10:51 | 作者:千龙分享 | 来源:新华社
Being overweight in middle-age makes the brain age by 10 years, research by the University of Cambridge has found.据剑桥大学的一项研究发现,中年肥胖者的大脑会比他们实际年龄老10岁。The study, which scanned 473 brains, found changes in the brain structure of overweight people which are normally seen in those far older.通过对473个人进行脑部扫描,这项研究发现,超重人士,尤其是那些年老人士的大脑结构有所变化。The volume of white matter - the tissue that connects areas of the brain and allows information to be communicated between regions - shrunk far more in those with a Body Mass Index above 25. Shrinkage of parts of the brain is associated with a higher risk of cognitive decline and dementia.对于那些身体质量指数在25以上的人,脑白质(连接大脑各区域的组织,并允许各区域之间进行信息的传递)萎缩的更严重。而大脑的收缩,意味着具有认知衰退和痴呆的高风险。The Cambridge Study found no differences in cognitive skills when participants underwent IQ tests. But the men and women will be scanned as they get older, to check for changes which indicate mental decline.剑桥大学研究团队对参与者进行了智商测试,没有发现他们有认知能力下降的迹象。不过,随着他们变老,将会再次扫描大脑以检测智力是否有下降。Human brains naturally shrink with age, but scientists are increasingly recognising that obesity - aly linked to conditions such as diabetes, cancer and heart disease - may also affect the onset and progression of brain ageing.我们的大脑自然地随着年龄的增长而萎缩,但科学家们越来越认识到,肥胖除了已知与如糖尿病、癌症和心脏疾病等多种疾病相关之外,也可能影响大脑老化的发生与进展。In the study of people aged between 20 and 87, researchers looked at the impact of obesity on brain structure across the adult lifespan.在对一组20岁到87岁的参与者的研究中,科学家观察了在整个成人寿命期限内,肥胖对大脑结构的影响。Researchers divided the groups into two categories: lean and overweight, depending on whether their BMI was above or below 25. They found striking differences in the volume of white matter. Overweight individuals had a widesp reduction in white matter compared with lean people.依据身体质量指数高于或低于25,研究员将参与者分成了两组:偏瘦组和超重组。他们发现两组的脑白质含量有惊人的区别。与偏瘦组相比,超重组的脑白质含量普遍都比较低。The team then calculated how white matter volume related to age across the two groups. They discovered that an overweight person at 50 had a comparable white matter volume to a lean person aged 60.之后,研究人员计算了两组人员中脑白质含量和年龄的相关性。他们发现,一个50岁超重的人,他的大脑白质和一个60岁偏瘦的人的大脑白质数量是一样的。Researchers only observed these differences from middle-age onwards, suggesting that brains may be particularly vulnerable during this period of ageing.研究人员只是从中年个体中发现了这些差异,这意味着随着人们年龄增长,大脑会变得越来越脆弱。 /201608/460991

Do you know your plates of meat from yourporkies? How about your trouble and strife from your tea leaf? Unless you’re anEnglish native, you may be wondering what on earth all this means.你知道plates of meat、porkies、trouble and strife、tea leaf在英文中都代表着什么意思吗?除非你的母语是英语,否则你可能根本搞不清楚这些到底是什么意思。These words, which may sound nonsense, areknown as *cockney *rhyming slang, a system of speech used across the UK.这些听起来十分“无厘头”的词,其实是一种在英国被广泛使用、来自伦敦的押韵俚语。Rhyming slang has roots in 19th centuryeast London, and developed either as a method for market stall traders tocommunicate in secret or perhaps even a way for thieves to trade informationwithout giving away their game – historians are unclear of its true origin.押韵俚语起源于19世纪的伦敦东区,可能是一种小商贩之间沟通的密语或小偷间交换信息的暗号——事实上,就连历史学家们目前也无法界定它的真正起源。While there’s no official listof phrases –you could even make them up as you go along - the general rule isto replace one word with a two-worded phrase that rhymes with it. 并没有哪个官方名单列举这些表达——你甚至都可以自己创造一些谚语——大体规则就是用一个押韵的双单词词组来替代单个单词。For example: “dog and bone”(phone) and“Ruby Murray”(curry).例如:“与骨头dog and bone”(电话phone)以及“露比#8226;默里Ruby Murray”(咖喱curry)。Fortunately, there are websites and apps tohelp if you still don’t have a Scooby Doo (clue).幸运的是,如果你还是连一条“史酷比Scooby Doo”(线索clue)都没有的话,还可以求助一些网站和应用。“I’d like as many Londoners as possible to have a go, let us know howthey get on and add the words we don’t know about,”DickHoweson, the creator of uTalk, a rhyming slang translation app, told Msn.com atits launch in July.“我希望伦敦人尽可能都来试一试(这个应用),告诉大家他们如何使用押韵俚语,分享一些大家不知道的用法,”押韵谚语翻译应用uTalk的创始人迪克#8226;豪尔森七月发布该应用时,向Msn.com 表示。The app’s release comes justa few years after a survey conducted by the Museum of London suggested thatrhyming slang is declining in use. 该应用发布几年前,伦敦物馆开展的一项押韵俚语调查指出,押韵俚语正在逐渐衰亡。The museum claimed after the 2012 survey of2,000 UK residents that rhyming slang was soon to be “brown b”(dead)after results showed that most *respondents’knowledge of it haddisappeared.2012年,2000名英国居民参与了该调查,结果显示,大多数参与调查者并不具备押韵谚语的相关知识。因此,物馆认为押韵俚语很快就会变成“黑面包brown b”(“死亡dead”)。“For many people, cockney rhyming slang is *intrinsic to the identityof London. “对许多人而言,伦敦东区的押韵谚语是一种伦敦人身份的固有象征。However this research suggests that thecockney dialect itself may not be enjoying the same level of popularity,”said themuseum’s curator, Alex Werner.然而,这项调查却显示,伦敦方言自身却并非如此普及,”物馆馆长亚历克斯#8226;维尔纳说道。Despite this, rhyming slang seems to beenjoying a *revival. 尽管如此,押韵俚语似乎正在悄然复兴。Not only does it have its own apps andwebsites, “cockney”is even a language option on some ATMs in east London –perfect forlocals in need of some sausage and mash (cash).现在它不光有了自己的应用和网站,在伦敦东区的一些ATM机上甚至出现了“伦敦方言”甚这一语言选项——对于需要“香肠和麦芽浆sausage and mash”(“现金cash”)的本地人来说,这堪称完美。But why do people still use this form ofdialect?但为什么人们仍在使用这种方言呢?“It makes me smile whenever I hear people using rhyming slang and Itry to keep it in use myself,”says Ian Groves, 53.“每当我听见人们用押韵俚语的时候,我都十分开心。 我自己也尝试着继续使用这些谚语,”现年53岁的伊恩#8226;格罗夫斯说道。Ian grew up in London but now lives furthersouth. 伊恩在伦敦长大,目前住在更南边的地区。He was brought up hearing rhyming slang andsays it brings back memories of his younger days.他听着这些押韵俚语长大,称这让他回忆起了青葱岁月。“My parents were both Londoners and we used rhyming slang around thehouse. “我父母都是伦敦人,所以我们总在家里说这种押韵俚语。I’d be told to wash myGerman bands (hands) before dinner and my grandma would go up the apples andpears (stairs) at bedtime,”he says. 从小,他们就教我晚饭前要洗‘德国乐队German bands’(‘手hands’),我的祖母在睡前上‘苹果和梨apples and pears’(‘楼梯stairs’),”他说道。“It reminds me of my youth.”“这些俚语让我想起了整个青春。So if you really want to show off yourEnglish skills on a trip to the UK, walking into a cafe in east London, askingfor a cup of Rosie Lee (tea) then telling the cashier to keep the rifle range(change) wouldn’t be a shabby start.所以,如果你真的想在英国的旅途中秀一把英语,就走进东伦敦的一家咖啡馆,点一杯“罗西#8226;李Rosie Lee “(茶tea),然后告诉收银员不用找“打靶场rifle range”(零钱change)了。这一定会是个不错的开始。 /201609/463825

Schoolchildren who attend their lessons wearing no shoes are likely to obtain better grades and behave better than those who wear them, a decade-long academic research has revealed.一项为期十年的研究显示,学龄孩童不穿鞋上课比穿鞋上课时成绩更好,表现也更出色。#39;Shoeless#39; children are more likely to arrive to school earlier, leave later and more, according to new research by Bournemouth University.伯恩茅斯大学的新研究发现,平时不穿鞋上课的孩子更可能到校早、离校晚且阅读多。Researchers have observed tens of thousands of children who leave their shoes outside the classroom and found that pupils are more engaged in their lessons, which in turn leads to better academic attainment.研究人员观察了数万个把鞋子脱在教室外的孩子,发现这些小学生在课堂上更专注,促使他们取得更优异的学业成绩。The research is in line with policies introduced in schools in England where children who go to class shoeless – following the steps of schools in Scandinavia in an effort to improve their academic standards and behaviour.为提高孩子们的学业成绩,改善其行为举止,英国的一些学校紧随斯堪的纳维亚半岛学校的脚步,推出让孩子们不穿鞋上课的政策,而此项研究正好与该政策不谋而合。The study is based on observing and studying tens of thousands of children in over 100 schools in around 25 countries over the last ten years.该项研究的研究人员在过去的十年里,对约25个国家的100多所学校中的数万个孩子进行了观察和研究。Apart from countries in Scandinavia, researchers have visited schools in New Zealand and Australia. The longest project has taken place in West London where children#39;s behaviour and academic results were analysed all the way through to university.除了斯堪的纳维亚半岛的国家,研究人员还访问了新西兰和澳大利亚的学校。其中在伦敦西部进行的项目历时最久,该项目对孩子从小学直到大学的行为举止和学业成绩进行分析。For decades children in northern Europe have learned with their shoes off because they are left at the school door arrival due to snow, ice or slush.几十年来,北欧地区的孩子都已学会脱掉鞋子上课,因为他们在到校时,往往出于大雪、冰水或污泥的原因,只得把鞋脱在教室门外。And now academics are calling on teachers in England to apply similar #39;shoeless#39; policies ;to give children the best possible chance of performing in their exams;.现在专家学者们都呼吁英国的教师实施类似的“赤脚”政策,“尽一切可能,让孩子们在考试中发挥好”。Experts believe having children with no shoes in the classroom improves their learning because it makes them #39;feel at home#39; and more relaxed when learning.专家认为让孩子们在教室不穿鞋能提高其学习效果,因为不穿鞋让孩子们学习时“像在家里一样自在”,身心也会更放松。Stephen Heppell, lead researcher and Professor at the Centre for Excellence in Media Practice at Bournemouth University, said: ;Children are much more willing to sit on the floor and relax if they have no shoes on.伯恩茅斯大学媒体研习英才中心首席研究员兼教授,史蒂芬#8226;赫佩尔表示:“孩子们在不穿鞋的情况下,更愿意席地而坐,身心也放松得多。;The last place a child would sit to is an upright chair and we#39;ve found that 95 percent of them actually don#39;t on a chair at home. When they go on holidays the lying down.“孩子们最不愿意坐在直椅背上阅读,我们发现实际上95%的孩子在家时都不会坐在椅子上阅读。假日期间,他们都躺着阅读。;Having conditions in the classroom that are like those at home means that more boys are ing in the classroom.“教室拥有和家中相似的条件意味着更多孩子会在教室阅读。;In shoeless schools children also arrive earlier and leave later, which translates into half an hour of extra learning a day on average.“在不穿鞋上课的学校,孩子们也到校早离校迟,这样算起来他们平均每天的学习时间会多半小时”。Wearing no shoes also means the cleaning bill decreased by 27 percent and schools need to spend less money on furniture because they don#39;t need to buy a chair and a table for every child as they can sit on the floor.孩子们不穿鞋上课也意味着学校的清洁成本会降低27%,学校在教室设备上的出也会减少,因为孩子们可以坐在地上,这样就无需购买桌椅。Prof Heppel said that because ;everything is going in their favour; children#39;s academic standards tend to improve too.史蒂芬#8226;赫佩尔表示,因为学校的“一切条件都符合孩子们的喜好”,所以孩子们的学业水平也会提升。He said: ;The key to attainment is engagement and if children want to be there and enjoy being there, universally they do better. When they arrive late and leave early and are disengaged, their performance suffers. Kids with shoes on are less engaged than those without shoes.;他说:“学习成绩好的关键是全身心地投入,如果孩子们愿意置身其中,并且乐在其中,那通常情况下,他们的学业表现也会更出色。如果他们到校迟,离校早,而且自由散漫,那成绩就会下滑。穿鞋的孩子比起不穿鞋的孩子,注意力更涣散。”On his website, Prof Heppel offers advice to schools on how to implement #39;a shoeless#39; policy.赫佩尔教授在其网站上就如何施行“赤脚”政策,给学校提供了各种建议。He says it should apply to all, including head teachers and guests and children need to be given notice so they are not ridiculed. He explains: ;Children need to know their wholly socks will not be exposed to mockery from their peers.;他表示,该政策应同样适用于校长、访客等所有与学校相关的人员,学校还应把该政策通知到位,如此一来孩子们才不会因为不穿鞋被嘲笑。他解释说:“孩子们还需知道他们的短袜并不会成为被同学们嘲笑的把柄。”There are limitations, however. Prof Heppel says: ;Short teachers who have been a bit #39;stacked#39; by their heels come back down to earth.;但是,这种做法也有不足之处。赫佩尔教授表示:“穿高跟鞋的矮个子教师就要重新‘脚踏实地’了。”So far theft of shoes left outside the classroom has not been reported as a problem.目前为止,脱在教室外的鞋子失窃现象并未被视为问题。 /201606/447111

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