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蓉江区人民医院网上挂号百科知识

2019年05月24日 20:08:54|来源:国际在线|编辑:好医媒体
Let’s face it: there is an inexplicable bond created when you slide a pencil or pen across a piece of paper, leaving traces of graphite or ink on what was once a blank canvas. That series of scratches coalesce to form a manifestation of an idea. As your mind scribbles and erases and scribbles some more, so does your hand. The physical steps become a part of the mental process.让我们面对现实吧:当你用笔在纸上写下一行字,把石墨或墨水凝成的字迹留在一张白纸上,总会产生一种说不清道不明的感觉。这一系列涂鸦变成了一种思想的体现。随着你的思想写写划划、删删改改,你的手也忙个不停。书写这套动作,已经成为思考过程的一部分。Technology has done wonders to reduce these steps. Computers and tablets (and keyboards and mice and capacitive displays and even speech recognition software) help us more quickly create. The problem, it seems, is that sometimes our minds aren’t quite up to speed. We need a little low-tech resistance to make the right ideas flow.科技奇迹般地缩短了这些步骤。电脑和平板电脑(以及键盘、鼠标、电容屏甚至语音识别软件等)使我们可以更快地进行思维的创造。但问题是,有些时候,我们的意识还没有跟上科技创新的脚步。所以为了让正确的创意喷涌而出,有时候我们不得不放慢脚步,来一点“低科技”作为佐料。As someone who makes a living staring at a blinking cursor that seems to always be a step ahead of me, I often find myself retreating to—if you’ll permit me saying so, here on this website—the analog version of Microsoft Word. Not to romanticize it, but writing is an intimate act, and that aspect is often overlooked as digitization marches on. (Well, except in Milan. The folks at Moleskineseem to get it.)作为一个依靠盯着闪烁的光标(它似乎总是比我快一步)讨生活的人,我经常发现自己对微软Word之类的软件有抵触情绪。我不是在吹嘘自己有格调,不过我认为书写是一种舒适的行为,但是随着数字化的发展,这一点经常被人忽略了。(呃,米兰人除外,做Moleskine高档笔记本的那群家伙似乎懂得这一点。)Believe it or not, technology companies seem to be aware of the problem. Microsoft, among others, is putting a lot of effort into replicating the familiarity of pen and paper on a layer of pixels below a slab of glass. It’s one reason why the company touted the Surface Pen as a primary selling point for its Surface Pro 3 tablet. As you may recall from an earlier column, I was veryimpressed with how it performed, and as I went from meeting to meeting with it during a trip to Japan, people continued to approach me and ask: “What stylus is that?” (Which was often followed by: “Does it work with the iPad?”)不管你信不信,一些科技公司也意识到了这个问题。比如微软等公司就花费大量精力,试图在平板电脑上模拟用纸笔写字的感觉。这也是为什么微软要把Surface Pen当作Surface Pro 3平板电脑的主要卖点之一。我在早些时候的一篇专栏文章中曾写道,Surface Pen的表现让我非常惊艳。前一阵我去日本出差时也带着它参加了一场又一场的会议,不断有人问我:“这是什么笔?”(下一句话经常就是:“它能在iPad上用吗?”)The Surface Pen does not work with an iPad, of course—its proprietary software is Microsoft-compatible only. But the inquiries set me on a search to find an iPad stylus that could replicate the experience of the Surface Pen and, by extension, the conventional pencil or pen.当然,Surface Pen是不能在iPad上用的,它的专有软件只在微软的产品上兼容。不过问的人多了,我就开始搜索有没有和Surface Pen的体验差不多、甚至接近传统纸笔书写感觉的iPad专用笔。My search began with Pencil from FiftyThree ( and up). Its chiseled form is reminiscent of a carpenter’s pencil, and its walnut or graphite housing underscores the reference. On the business end you’ll find a soft rubber tip designed to glide across an iPad display; the butt of the tool offers another contact point that’s meant to duplicate an eraser. Thanks to a Bluetooth 4.0 sensor, the implement can detect tip pressure (which, through software, translates to line thickness), determine when the eraser end is in use, and eliminate any errant doodling when you rest your palm on the screen.我首先找到的是FiftyThree公司推出的Pencil笔(售价60美元以上),它的造型让人联想起木工铅笔,胡桃木加铅笔芯的搭配更强化了这种感觉。笔尖一端有一个软软的橡胶头,用来在iPad显示屏上写字;笔端有另一个接触点,模拟的是橡皮擦的功能。借助一个蓝牙4.0传感器,它可以探测笔尖的压力(通过软件可以转换成笔迹的粗细),也可以探测到你是在使用笔尖还是使用橡皮擦,同时也可以避免当你把手放在屏幕上时,出现不合时宜的涂鸦。Writing with Pencil, it was apparent that I was using a digital tool. Instead of concentrating on what I was writing, I constantly found myself focusing on what I was writing with. How I positioned the tip of the stylus was a persistent thought because its soft material made the contact point change in shape as I wrote with it. My letters would blend together unnecessarily, not unlike the stereotype of a physician’s freehand, leaving me to decipher my own transcribed thoughts. Pencil makes for a superb sketching tool, but as a writing implement it left me wanting.用这笔写字时,我明显能感到自己是在用一款数码工具在写字。因此我关注的不是我在写什么,而是一直把注意力放在我的书写工具上。我一直在想自己应该用什么姿势使用这笔,因为接触点的软质材料容易在书写时变形。我的字迹会出现不必要的模糊,就像医生开处方的草书一样,有时候很难识别。Pencil笔可能是一很好的画画工具,但是作为书写工具仍稍嫌不足。The Cosmonaut by Studio Neat () was recommended to me by a er. This stylus was thick like the Pencil but was cylindrical, designed to replicate the feel of a dry erase marker. The Cosmonaut is far simpler than its peers because it lacks internal electronics and dedicated software, instead relying on a device’s capacitive screen for interaction. The rubber tip of the stylus is firm and made for a consistent contact point on the iPad’s screen. Despite the tool’s girth, I felt like I had more control over my handwriting than the Pencil—I could indeed my own handwriting. Unfortunately, it stops there: because the stylus lacks its own software, it offers little in the way of pressure detection or quick-erase smarts.Studio Neat公司推出的Cosmonaut笔(售价25美元)是一位读者给我推荐的。这笔的粗细跟Pencil差不多,但它是圆柱型的,使用时感觉像是一白板笔。Cosmonaut要比其它电容笔简单多了,因为它没有复杂的内部结构和专用软件,而是依靠设备的电容屏进行交互。它的橡胶笔尖较硬,而且与iPad屏幕的接触点比较一致。尽管这笔还是比较粗,但我觉得我对字迹的控制要好于Pencil——至少我能看懂自己写了些什么。可惜它的好处也就止于此处,由于这笔缺乏自有软件,它既没有压力探测功能,也没有迅速删除功能。Is simple better for a stylus? I walked out of a Best Buy with a slim model made by Targus () to find out. The implement has a soft rubber nib on one end and most closely resembles the shape and size of a traditional pen. Like the Cosmonaut, the Targus stylus lacks internal components or accompanying software. Unlike the Cosmonaut (but quite like the Pencil), it was a complete distraction during use. It quickly became clear to me that this stylus was better suited to acute tasks, such as selecting icons or buttons in an interface, rather than free-form writing.对于电容笔来说,是否简单才是更好的?我在百思买(Best Buy)买了一Targus公司生产的一较修长的电容笔(售价9美元)。这笔有一个较软的橡胶笔尖,形状和大小都像传统铅笔的笔尖。像Cosmonaut一样,它也没有内部元件或专用软件。不同之处在于(这一点跟Pencil比较像),它在使用的时候非常容易让人分心。它很快使我意识到,这笔比较适合应急,比如选择图标或者按钮什么的,而不是自由书写。To the other end of the price spectrum, then. The Adonit Jot Touch (0) was by far the most expensive stylus I tested, and like most of the models I used, it had a thicker profile, akin to a full-size Sharpie (but with two buttons where your thumb might rest). Like the Pencil, the Jot Touch uses software to facilitate interaction with an iPad. The two buttons can be assigned actions, depending on your composition app of preference; during my testing, I set the bottom one as an “Undo” action and the top one as a “Redo.” (What can I say, I’m an indecisive writer.) Though the Jot Touch’s body is thicker than a traditional pen, its “Pixelpoint” tip isn’t, and I found it suitable for writing at length.再说说高端产品。卖价120美元的Adonit Jot Touch是目前为止我测试过的最贵的一电容笔。另外和大多数我测试的其它产品一样,它的“三围”也比较丰满,有点像一大号的Sharpie牌签字笔,它有两个按钮,你可以把拇指方在上面。像Pencil一样,这笔通过软件来促进与iPad的交互。根据你的偏好,这两个按钮可以进行指定的操作。在我的评测过程中,我把下面那个按钮设置为“撤消”功能,把上面那个按钮设置为“恢复”功能(没办法,我写作时爱犹豫)。虽然这电容笔比传统钢笔要粗上一圈,但它的“像素点”端却没那么粗,而且我发现它很适合长时间写作。The world of styluses is surprisingly large, and I in no way claim to have tested every size, shape, or type available on the market. (In Best Buy alone, there was a four-foot section of them.) I evaluated the implements above on the advice of ers and personal research, using the Noteshelf app as my digital paper of choice. (Which, I should note, explicitly supports the Pencil and Jot Touch.)电容笔已经成了一个大得惊人的产业,而且我也绝不敢声称我把市面上的每一种规格、型号、外观的电容笔都测试了。(光是在百思买超市里,就有四英尺长的一排货架是卖电容笔的。)我根据读者的建议和个人的搜索评测了上述几款产品,搭配的书写应用软件是Noteshelf。(务必要指出的是,它对Pencil和Jot Touch持得特别好。)After a week of staring at my embarrassing penmanship—at times laughing at the fact that it could actually get worse than what’s aly become of it in this keyboard-first world we live in—I came to an obvious conclusion. The Jot Touch, with help from Noteshelf, is the iPad stylus that best replicates the pen and paper experience so many covet.我连续看了一个星期我那令人尴尬的书法,好几次苦笑着承认一个事实:在这个以键盘为主的世界,我们的字只会写得越来越难看。在这之后,我得出了一个明显的结论:Jot Touch电容笔在NoteShelf软件的配合下,可以说是在iPad上模拟传统纸笔体验最出色的电容笔。But a facsimile is not the real thing. If you’re looking for an intimate, creative, even romantic way to put pen to paper—well, you know what to do. Let the mind wander. Doodle in the margins. There’s a time to be efficient. This isn’t it.但模拟得再像,毕竟也不是真的。如果你想要一种放松的、创造性的甚至是有格调的书写体验——你知道该怎么做。让思想游荡,让笔尖在白纸上涂鸦。有些时候我们必须追求效率,但是写作不能这样。 /201409/327312The recent update to Apple’s tablet product line leaves open a number of questions, but the biggest one is ‘which iPad should I buy, the iPad Air or the new iPad mini?’ Having reviewed both the iPad Air and the iPad mini with Retina Display here on Forbes, it’s not an easy decision to make.苹果平板电脑产品线的最近更新留下了很多疑问,其中最大的疑问是:“应该买哪款iPad?是iPad Air,还是配备Retina显示屏的iPad mini(下简称iPad Mini 2)?”我已经在福布斯网站上分别发表了iPad Air和iPad Mini 2的评测文章,但至于究竟该买哪一款,这仍然是个艰难的决定。Of course there are two more iPads out there that need to be acknowledged. Apple has retained the iPad 2, and while it might be a non-threatening option for those coming to the tablet space, its age and similar price to the iPad mini with Retina Display rules it out for the majority of consumer sales. On reflection I suspect that the iPad 2 remains ranged due to the huge number of educational markets that are equipped with this variant of the tablet and a number of 30-pin dock connector accessories.当然,必须承认还有另外两款iPad可供选择。苹果仍然保留了iPad 2,但它不会对平板电脑新品构成威胁。iPad 2不仅发布时间较久,而且价格与带视网膜屏的iPad mini相近,这使它不会成为大多数消费者的选择。我猜测,iPad 2之所以仍未下架,原因之一是大量的教育机构都配备了这款平板电脑,还有其30针底座连接器的相应配件。The original iPad mini also remains ranged, and is the lowest priced iPad that Apple has on sale. As a second tablet for around the home, perhaps for younger members of the family, the iPad mini makes some commercial sense, especially if you have to buy multiple units. But unless price is a major concern, I would urge consumers to look up at the iPad mini with Retina Display or the iPad Air.初代iPad mini也未下架,是市面上最便宜的iPad产品。作为家里的备用(或是为家里小孩准备的)平板电脑,初代iPad mini在商业上仍然具有存在意义,尤其是在你不得不购买多台设备的情况下。但除非价格是主要考虑因素,否则我建议消费者选择iPad mini 2或者iPad Air。Both the 7.9 inch mini, and the 9.7 inch Air, have drawn elements from each other. The iPad mini with Retina Display has received a comparatively large jump in specifications, bringing it in line with the iPad Air. There is a very slight performance increase in the iPad Air’s A7 (it runs at 1.4GHz, compared to 1.3GHz on the iPad mini with Retina Display, and the iPhone 5S). This tiny bump aside, you no longer have to trade performance for the smaller size of the 2013 iPad mini edition.7.9英寸的iPad mini 2和9.7英寸的iPad Air都借鉴了彼此的元素。iPad mini 2的配置有较大提升,与iPad Air相差无几。iPad Air的A7处理器性能略强(运行频率为1.4GHz,而iPad mini 2和iPhone 5S为1.3GHz)。除了这个微小的差距以外,尺寸较小的2013版iPad mini在性能方面与iPad Air相比毫不逊色。In the same breath, the styling of the iPad Air owes far more to the design that debuted with the iPad mini last year than previous editions of the full-sized Apple tablet. With a much reduced bezel on the side of the screen, and a similar size at top and bottom, the iPad Air’s footprint is much reduced (and the thickness drops to 7.5 mm, which is astonishingly thin). It feels far more fashionable and well designed than the older generation, and of course matches up with the iPad mini to create an almost cohesive look when the iPad’s are all on sale together.同时,iPad Air的风格更像是去年iPad mini首次采用的那种设计,而不像是前几代的全尺寸苹果平板电脑。iPad Air的屏幕边框更窄,顶部和底部的大小与iPad mini类似,因此占用面积大大减少(而且厚度降至7.5毫米,薄得惊人)。与前代产品相比,iPad Air远远更加时尚、设计更加精美,但它还是能跟iPad mini实现外观上的完美衔接,使得所有iPad产品摆在一起时仍能形成和谐的整体外观。When you line up specifications, when capabilities are equal across the board, and when the back-end software and support are identical, there’s not a lot of distinction to make between the two tablets apart from size, and I think that’s where the decision has to be made.在配置相似、性能相当、后端软件和持相同的情况下,iPad Air和iPad mini 2没有太大区别,除了尺寸,而我认为,尺寸就是下决定的关键点。Think about how you would use a tablet throughout the day. If you are someone looking for a tablet to use while moving around, while standing up, and generally holding in one hand and operating it with the other, then the extra weight of the iPad Air over the iPad mini with Retina Display is eventually going to catch up with you. In which case the more mobile user should go for the iPad mini with Retina Display.想想你一天中都是如何使用平板电脑的。如果你想要一款可以在走动或站立时使用、通常只需单手握持用另一只手操作的平板电脑,那么iPad Air相对于iPad mini 2的额外重量最终会显现出来。在这种情况下,对移动性需求更强的用户就应该选择iPad mini 2。If your iPad is going to be used more at a desk, while sitting down, and where you have a chance to rest it somewhere, then I would go for the physically larger screen and longer battery life. Which means the iPad Air.如果你坐着在桌前使用iPad的时候更多,并且有机会在桌上找个地方撑iPad,那么我推荐屏幕尺寸更大的、续航时间更长的,也就是iPad Air。There’s not much in it, and I’d be interested to which decision you have come to. Is it the smaller mini, the larger Air, or one of the quirky older Apple tablets for you? And how did you come to that decision?就是这么简单。我很想知道读者会如何选择。是较小的mini,还是较大的Air,抑或是显得古怪的苹果前几代平板电脑之一?你是如何作出决定的? /201312/269574

Many of the people who this article will do so because Greg Marra, 26, a Facebook engineer, calculated that it was the kind of thing they might enjoy.许多读过这篇文章的人都会被改变,因为26岁的脸书工程师格雷格马拉统计这会是人们非常享受的事。Mr. Marra’s team designs the code that drives Facebook’s News Feed — the stream of updates, photographs, s and stories that users see. He is also fast becoming one of the most influential people in the news business.马拉先生的团队负责设计编码脸书动态信息-新消息、照片、视频以及用户们看的故事。他也很快晋升为新闻业最有影响力的人之一。Facebook now has a fifth of the world — about 1.3 billion people — logging on at least monthly. It drives up to 20 percent of traffic to news sites, according to figures from the analytics company SimpleReach. On mobile devices, the fastest-growing source of ers, the percentage is even higher, SimpleReach says, and continues to increase.脸书每个月至少有近世界五分之一的人口-大约13亿人-登录。触手可及公司的数据员提供的数据表明脸书使人们对新闻网站的使用增加了20%。该公司还指出移动设备作为读者增长最快的平台增长比例更大,并且还在持续增长中。The social media company is increasingly becoming to the news business what Amazon is to book publishing — a behemoth that provides access to hundreds of millions of consumers and wields enormous power. About 30 percent of adults in the ed States get their news on Facebook, according to a study from the Pew Research Center. The fortunes of a news site, in short, can rise or fall depending on how it performs in Facebook’s News Feed.这家社交媒体公司在新闻界的地位逐渐可与亚马逊在图书出版业的地位媲美。它消费人数上亿,拥有巨大影响力。皮尤研究中心指出30%的美国成年人通过脸书读取新闻。简单的说就是一个新闻网站的命运与否取决于其在脸书动态信息上的表现。Though other services, like Twitter and Google News, can also exert a large influence, Facebook is at the forefront of a fundamental change in how people consume journalism. Most ers now come to it not through the print editions of newspapers and magazines or their home pages online, but through social media and search engines driven by an algorithm, a mathematical formula that predicts what users might want to .尽管推特和谷歌新闻等其他务商也拥有巨大影响力。脸书却是彻底改变人们消费新闻方式的领军人物。如今大多数读者都不再通过纸质版报纸、杂志或者在线主页浏览新闻,而是利用社交媒体和搜索引擎。后者可以通过演算法即一种数学公式预测读者可能想要读的新闻。It is a world of fragments, filtered by code and delivered on demand. For news organizations, said Cory Haik, senior editor for digital news at The Washington Post, the shift represents “the great unbundling” of journalism. Just as the music industry has moved largely from selling albums to songs bought instantly online, publishers are increasingly reaching ers through individual pieces rather than complete editions of newspapers or magazines. A publication’s home page, said Edward Kim, a co-founder of SimpleReach, will soon be important more as an advertisement of its brand than as a destination for ers.这是一个由片段构成的世界,充斥着编码,按需定制。华盛顿邮报电子新闻高级编辑克里海客说对新闻机构而言,这种转变意味着新闻业的“大分拆”。音乐界已经完成了从卖唱片到在网上随时随地售卖歌曲的大跨步。出版社也越来越多地通过散文章而不是一整期报纸或者杂志将新闻呈现给读者了。触手可及的合伙人爱德华金姆说出版社的主页很快就会成为宣传其品牌的重要平台而不是读者的阅读终端。“People won’t type in WashingtonPost.com anymore,” Ms. Haik said. “It’s search and social.”“人们不会再输入WashingtonPost.com了。”海客先生说,“一切都要依靠搜索和社交了。”The shift raises questions about the ability of computers to curate news, a role traditionally played by editors. It also has broader implications for the way people consume information, and thus how they see the world.该转变引发了有关电脑过滤新闻能力的问题。这一直以来都是编剧的工作。它也对人们消费信息的方式造成更多影响,进而波及人们看待世界的方式。In an interview at Facebook’s sprawling headquarters here, which has a giant, self-driving golf cart that takes workers between buildings, Mr. Marra said he did not think too much about his impact on journalism.脸书多栋总部大楼里有一辆巨大的自动驾驶高尔夫球车可以载着员工在楼宇之间穿行。马拉先生就是在那里接受了采访,他说他没多想自己对新闻的影响。“We try to explicitly view ourselves as not editors,” he said. “We don’t want to have editorial judgment over the content that’s in your feed. You’ve made your friends, you’ve connected to the pages that you want to connect to and you’re the best decider for the things that you care about.”“我们明确努力不把自己看做编辑。”他说。“我们不希望你的消息内容里出现编辑式。你自己去结交朋友,你自己去看想看的网站,并且你是决定你要在乎的事情的最佳人选。”In Facebook’s work on its users’ news feeds, Mr. Marra said, “we’re saying, ‘We think that of all the stuff you’ve connected yourself to, this is the stuff you’d be most interested in ing.#39; ”马拉先生在谈到脸书在用户新闻消息方面所做的工作的时候,他说:“我们想说的是#39;我们认为你连接的任何内容都会是你最想读的东西。#39;”Roughly once a week, he and his team of about 16 adjust the complex computer code that decides what to show a user when he or she first logs on to Facebook. The code is based on “thousands and thousands” of metrics, Mr. Marra said, including what device a user is on, how many comments or likes a story has received and how long ers spend on an article.他和他的团队(16人左右)基本上每周都会调整一次决定用户在登录脸书后第一时间看到的内容的复杂电脑编码。马拉先生说这个编码建立在数以万计的权值基础之上,其中包括用户使用的设备、某个故事获得的数量或者点赞数量以及读者们在阅读某篇文章上花的时长。The goal is to identify what users most enjoy, and its results vary around the world. In India, he said, people tend to share what the company calls the ADs: astrology, Bollywood, cricket and divinity.目标即为找出用户最钟爱的内容。世界各地喜好差距很大。他说印度人往往会分享被脸书公司称作入门知识的内容:占星术、宝莱坞、板球和神学。If Facebook’s algorithm smiles on a publisher, the rewards, in terms of traffic, can be enormous. If Mr. Marra and his team decide that users do not enjoy certain things, such as teaser headlines that lure ers to click through to get all the information, it can mean ruin. When Facebook made changes to its algorithm in December 2013 to emphasize higher-quality content, several so-called viral sites that had thrived there, including Upworthy, Distractify and Elite Daily, saw large declines in their traffic.如果脸书的演算法向某位出版商露笑脸,那么该出版商的浏览量一定非常可观。如果马拉先生及其团队认为用户不喜欢某些东西,比如吸引读者一路点到底才能获取信息的戏弄标题,那它就玩完了。2013年12月脸书对演算法做出改变强调高品质内容。当时许多红极一时的所谓的热门网站浏览量大幅下跌。Facebook executives frame the company’s relationship with publishers as mutually beneficial: when publishers promote their content on Facebook, its users have more engaging material to , and the publishers get increased traffic driven to their sites. Numerous publications, including The New York Times, have met with Facebook officials to discuss how to improve their referral traffic.脸书总管们将公司与出版商的关系描述为互惠。当出版商改善其在脸书上的内容质量的时候,脸书用户就有更有看头的内容可读,而出版商网站的浏览量也会增加。包括《纽约时报》在内的众多出版物都与脸书官员碰面探讨增加推荐流量的方法。The increased traffic can potentially mean that the publisher can increase its advertising rates or convert some of those new ers into subscribers.浏览量增加就有可能意味着出版商可以抬高其广告费或者将那些新读者转变为订阅读者。Social media companies like Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn want their users to spend more time,or do more, on their services — a concept known as engagement, said Sean Munson, an assistant professor at the University of Washington who studies the intersection of technology and behavior.华盛顿大学副教授肖恩芒森研究科技与行为交叉点。他说像脸书、推特和邻客音之类的社交媒体公司希望用户可以花更多时间使用其务或者在其务平台上做更多事情。这种观念被称作参与度。Facebook officials say that the more time users spend at its site, the more likely there will be a robust exchange of diverse viewpoints and ideas shared online. Others fear that users will create their own echo chambers, and filter out coverage they do not agree with. “And that,” Mr. Munson said, “is when you get conspiracy theories.”脸书官员称用户在其网站上停留的时间越久网络上就会有越激烈的不同意见想法交流。有人担心用户会创建自己的回音室,并且过滤掉他们不认可的报道。芒森说:“那就是你产生阴谋论的时候会有的想法。”Ben Smith, editor in chief of BuzzFeed, a news and entertainment site, said his rule for writing and reporting in a fragmented age is simple: “no filler.” News organizations that still publish a print edition, he said, have slots — physical holes on paper or virtual ones on a home page — that result in the publication of stories that are not necessarily the most interesting or timely, but are required to fill the space. It was partly to discourage such slot-filling that BuzzFeed did not focus on its home page when it first started, he said.本史密斯(蜂鸣新闻网的主编)说他在破裂时代对写作与报道定下的规矩很简单:“不要填充物。”他说那些依然在出版纸质出版物的新闻机构会出现有一些空白区-或是报纸上真真正正的空白区或是主页上的虚拟空白区。这就导致它们会出版一些单纯为填补空缺而出版的却并不一定是最有趣或最新的故事。蜂鸣在初期并没有专注于主页有一部分原因就是为了打击填充作品。Mr. Kim of SimpleReach says he advises established media companies that “it’s dangerous to start chasing social. You’ll end up like everyone else, and you’ll lose your differentiation.” The question that older publications that are not “digital natives” like BuzzFeed have to ask themselves, Mr. Kim said, is “Are you creating content for the way that content is consumed in this environment?”触手可及公司的金姆先生给著名的媒体公司提出建议认为“追赶社交是危险的。你最终会落得与其他人一样的下场,你会失去自己的个性。”金姆先生说像蜂鸣这样非电子出身的老出版物要扪心自问的是:“你创造的内容是按照当下环境里人们消费方式创造的吗?”Ms. Haik, the Washington Post digital editor, is leading a team, started this year, that aims to deliver different versions of The Post’s journalism to different people, based on information about how they have come to an article, which device they are on and even, if it is a phone, which way they are holding it.《华盛顿邮报》电子编辑海客从今年起开始领导一只队伍。该队伍的目标是根据人们接触信息的方式、使用的设备,甚至如果用电话的话持电话方式来为不同的人提供不同版本的报纸内容。“We’re asking if there’s a different kind of storytelling, not just an ideal presentation,” she said. For instance, she said, people ing The Post on a mobile phone during the day will probably want a different kind of ing experience than those who are on a Wi-Fi connection at home in the evening.“我们在问是否有不同的讲故事方式而不只是寻求完美的展示这么简单。”她说。比如,她说那些白天用移动手机看《邮报》的人希望得到的阅读体验也许和那些晚上在家用无线的人不一样。The Post is putting time and energy into such efforts, Ms. Haik said, because it is “ultimately about sustaining our business or growing our audience.” More than half of its mobile ers, she said, are so-called millennials who consume news digitally and largely through social media sites like Facebook. Some publications have found a niche in taking the opposite approach. The Browser is edited by Robert Cottrell, a former journalist at The Financial Times and The Economist. Mr. Cottrell skims about 1,000 articles a day, he said, and then publishes five or six that he finds interesting for about 7,000 subscribers who pay a year. A recent selection included the life of an early-20th-century American bricklayer and a study of great Eastern philosophers.海客说《邮报》在花时间和经历做这样的事是因为“终极目标是维持经营以及增加读者数量。”她说《邮报》一半以上的移动读者都是所谓的千禧年一代。他们主要通过脸书之类的社交媒体网站阅读新闻。有些出版物从另一个角度出发也为自己找到立足之地。《The Browser》的编辑是罗伯特科特雷尔,他之前曾在《金融时报》和《经济学人》任职记者。科特雷尔先生说他每天大概要浏览1000篇文章。然后在其中找出五到六篇他认为有趣的文章发表以供每年付费20美元的约7,000名订阅者阅读。他最新选出的两篇文章分别是讲述一位20世纪初的美国砖匠的故事和一份对东方哲学家的研究。“The general idea is to offer a few pieces each day which we think are both enjoyable and of lasting value,” Mr. Cottrell said. “We’re certainly at the other end of the process from the algorithms.”“我们的主要是想每天提供几篇我们认为既有趣又有长期价值的文章。”科特雷尔先生说。“我们绝对是在演算法的另一种端。”Artificial intelligence, he said, may eventually be able to find a piece of writing moving, in some sense, and want to share it. But for the moment, computers rely on information gathered online “and that is going to be a very, very impoverished data set compared to a human being.”他说或许人工智能终有一天会有能力找到感人的文章并且在某种程度上想要将文章分享给别人看。不过目前电脑还是要依赖网上搜集的信息,“并且它的数据与人类相比是非常贫瘠的。”Mr. Marra, the Facebook engineer, agrees that a human editor for each individual would be ideal. “But it’s not realistic to do that at scale for every person on the planet,” he said, “and so I think we’ll always have these hybrid systems like News Feed that are helping you find the things that you care about.” It is simply, he said, “a personalized newspaper.”脸书工程师马拉先生也同意如果每个人都拥有一位人类编辑那会非常完美。“不过要让地球上每个人都享有这种待遇不现实。”他说道,“所以我认为我们会一直利用想动态消息这样的杂交系统帮助你寻找你在意的东西。”他说这其实就是一份“个人定制报纸了”。 /201411/340037

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