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2019年10月18日 10:42:29来源:华龙分类

It could disappear before 2030.可能2030年会全部消失。Some predictions suggest 2015.有些则预言2015年。Soon these waters will be free of ice several summer months a year.很快这些水就会在夏天的几个月里脱离冰川。The sunbeams that the ice sheet previously reflected back now penetrate the dark water, heating it up.本来被大冰原反射的阳光现在直照深海并加热海水。The warming process gathers pace.这加速了暖化过程。This ice contains the records of our planet.冰雪包含地球的记录。The concentration of carbon dioxide hasn#39;t been so high for several hundred thousand years.数十万年来二氧化碳的浓度从未这样高。Humanity has never lived in an atmosphere like this.人类从未生活在这种大气下。Is excessive exploitation of our resources threatening the lives of every species?资源的过度开发正威胁所有品种的生存?Climate change accentuates the threat.气候变化使危机加深。By 2050, a quarter of the Earth#39;s species could be threatened with extinction.到2050年 地球上四分之一物种面临绝种的危险。In these polar regions, the balance of nature has aly been disrupted.在南北两极大自然的平衡已瓦解。Off the coast of Greenland, there are more and more icebergs.格陵兰岛的沿海冰山越来越多。 Article/201411/341093。

  • Mountains tend to be narrower at the top than they are at the bottom otherwise they#39;ll eventually fall down-but that doesn#39;t mean that mountains are always smaller at the top.Because,what matters to most land creatures is the amount of land;that is,the surface area,not the voiume-unless you#39;re a mining company that plans to pulverize the entire mountain into smithereens.山的顶部往往比底部狭窄,否则它们会很容易倒塌,但是,这并不意味着山顶永远是最小的部分,对于大部分陆地生物而言重要的是陆地面积,也就是表面积,而非体积,除非你是一家正计划将整座山炸个粉碎的矿业公司。Then volume matters.But to the rest of us,we care about surface area-and surprisingly,the area of land on a mountain doesn#39;t necessarily get smaller as you go higher up the mountain-especially when that mountain is part of a mountain range,as mountains tend to be.Simple,lone mountains with shapes like cones or spikes or inverted parabolas do indeed have less surface area the higher up you go,though a parabolic mountain has a lot more area high up than a spikey mountain.那么,体积会更重要,但对于其他人而言,我们更在意的是陆地面积,神奇的是,山的表面积未必会随着,海拔的升高而减小,当一座山属于山脉的一部分时,尤其如此,单独的一座形状像锥形,尖锥形或倒抛物线形的山,其面积确实会随着高度而减小,尽管抛物线形的山其面积会比尖锥形的山大一些。And broader,flatter,mountains can actually have more area the higher you go up,at least until you get to the very top.These mountains do get skinnier as they go up,but they get flatter so much faster than they get skinnier that from the perspective of available surface area they#39;re bigger on top than at the bottom!更宽更平坦的山,其面积会随着高度上升而增大,除了极接近顶部的部分,这些山的围度确实会随着高度上升而减小,但是它们变平坦的速度远大于围度的缩小程度,以至于从可利用面积的角度来看,它们的顶部甚至大于底部。And when you put mountains together into ranges,it#39;s even more complicated.Some ranges have less land area the higher you go up,some have more area,some have more and then less,and some actually have more area at both the bottom and top and less area in the middle!当你把一堆山并为山脉时,情况就更加复杂了,有些山脉随着高度的上升陆地面积减小,有些陆地面积增大,有些则是先增大后减小,而有些甚至山底和山顶面积大,而中间段面积小。In fact,if you do survey of mountian ranges the world over,you#39;ll find that only around a third of them have a constantly decreasing amount of hand the higher you go,and the rest exhibit one of the other weird ;top-heavy;options.In other words,despite appearances and as odd as it sounds,most mountain ranges are bigger near their tops.事实上如果你对全世界的山脉做个调查你将会发现只有约三分之一的山,其面积是随着高度的增加而减小的,其他的则大多为奇怪的“头重脚轻”形,也就是说尽管听起来很荒唐,但是大部分的山,顶部都更大些。Which has interesting implications for any land-dwelling creatures that might want to move their homes and businesses up or down mountains,if,I don#39;t know,the climate changes or something.And one more weird fact:a perfectly hemispherical mountain,while impossible in reality,has just the right shape to get skinnier at the same that it gets flatter,so it has,amazingly,the exact same amount of area at every elevation.这对于陆栖动物而言有着重要的意义,当遇到气候变化之类的自然影响时,它们很可能会迁居上山或迁下山,还有一个更奇怪的事实:现实中不可能存在,完美的半球形的山,这要求这座山围度减小的幅度要与变平的幅度相当,这样这座山在不同的海拔高度其面积都相同。The same math also means that if you evenly slice an orange,each piece will have roughly the same amount of skin -but different amounts of fruit.也就是说如果你均匀的切开一个橙子,每一片的面积大小会大致相同,但果肉的量却不一样。 Article/201506/381594。
  • If you look at the limbs what you find is that the joints are all angled你可以看一下四肢,它们的关节都呈直角so that the limb would have stretched out just to the sides.所以四肢伸出来时只能贴住身体两侧There#39;s just no way that it could have brought its leg underneath to take any weight.它不可能把腿放到身体下面撑体重Similarly with the hind limb, which we found a bit later on, similar kind of arrangement,我们稍后发现,后肢也是同样的情况,也有类似的结构,no ankle to speak of, just a paddle like limb.没有所谓的踝部,长得和桨一样Acanthostega#39;s legs would have been useless for walking棘螈的腿根本不适合于行走and what#39;s more, although it was a fully formed tetrapod it could never have lived out of the water.另外,尽管它是完全成形的四足动物,它却不能离开水生活It had gills just like a fish.它长着和鱼一样的鳃It meant the evolution of our legs could never have had anything to do with walking on land.这意味着腿的进化应该和陆上行走毫无关系Jenny Clack#39;s discovery of the acanthostega had changed everything.Jenny Clack发现的棘螈改变了一切The old explanation that we#39;d evolved our legs after a fish came onto land just could not be true.原来解释说腿的进化发生在鱼登陆之后,现在看来也并不正确So the thing that has really changed is that rather than the fish所以真正的演化过程并不是going onto the land while it#39;s, it#39;s still got fins we#39;ve turned that completely on its head,鱼带着鳍爬到陆地上,我们已经从根本上推翻了这一观点so now we#39;ve got tetrapods in the water, still in the water, while they#39;ve got limbs with digits.我们现在认为四足动物仍旧在水中,在水里进化出腿和趾。 Article/201703/496093。
  • So why did the Sun#39;s spots disappear for 50-odd years?那太阳黑子为什么会消失五十几年呢To answer that question,为了回答这个问题Mike had to go back even further in time,迈克还得回到更早的时间back before the beginning of civilisation.回到文明诞生之前One of the best places to若想了解get that long view of the history of the Sun太阳的漫长历史 最好的一个地方is in ice.就是在冰里He and his fellow scientists analysed ice cores他和其他科学家分析冰芯because they contain a signature因为其上记录了of what#39;s been happening to the Sun over thousands of years.太阳数千年来的活动We can core into that effectively look back in time.我们可以取出冰芯有效地追溯到过去Roughly speaking, there are 20 to 30 grand maxima大致上 我们可以看到在九千年间and grand minima in the 9,000 years that we can look at.有二三十个太阳活动极大和极小期So what the ice showed冰芯显示的结果was something nobody could have predicted.出乎人们意料The Sun had a secret rhythm.太阳有一个秘密的周期 Article/201410/337967。
  • Sources of folic acid include fortified foods叶酸的食物来源包括强化食品such as cereals, pastas, and bs, and green vegetables.如谷类,意大利面,面包,和绿叶蔬菜等For many women, food sources alone are not sufficient对很多女性而言,食物来源还不够to meet folate needs;满足叶酸需求therefore, supplementation is advised.因此,建议用补品All women of child-bearing age所有的育龄妇女should consume at least 400 micrograms都应至少每天of folic acid each day.用叶酸400微克In a recent study, Amerian and Olbidat最近一项研究中 Amerian和reviewed how mandatory fortification of folic acidOlbidat研究了食物中的加强型叶酸into foods impacted the incidence如何影响of neural tube defects in Jordan.影响约旦地区新生儿神经管缺损事例的发生Like many countries, Jordan mandated fortification像许多国家一样,约旦规定of cereal foods with folic acid在杂粮食物中加入叶酸which led to an increase of approximately 30 to 70%这使得育龄妇女in the intake of folic acid叶酸用量among women of child-bearing age.提高了大概30%到70%In this population, 87% of the neural tube defects在该国人口中 87%的新生儿神经管缺损与were attributed to Spina Bifida.归因于脊柱裂A total of 61,447 live births between 2000 and 20062000年至2006年间 61447个at Princess Bedai Teaching Hospital were analyzed.新生儿在伯黛王妃医学院附属医院得以分析The authors looked at the prevalence这两个研究人员查看了of neural tube defects before,神经管缺损during, and after fortification.在营养加强前,加强中和加强后的情况In the period before folic acid fortification,在加强叶酸之前the incidence of neural tube defects was 1.85神经管缺损的发生率为每一千个婴儿中per 1000 live births.有1.85人患有此病During the introduction period of fortification,在加强叶酸的阶段the incidence dropped to 1.07该比率下降到1.07and in the period after fortification,叶酸加强阶段之后it had decreased to 0.95. In conclusion,该比率降至0.95。总之there was a significant decline of 49% in加强叶酸摄入量后the overall incidence of neural tube defects整个的新生儿神经管缺损率after folic acid fortification.下降了49%Maternal anemia due to iron deficiency由缺铁引发的母体贫血is a common pregnancy risk.是一种常见的怀风险Iron is essential for red blood cells铁元素对红细胞to deliver oxygen to the baby during pregnancy.在期把氧气输送给胎儿非常重要And during pregnancy, increased blood cells are needed而且在期需要提高红细胞的数量to meet the needs of the growing fetus.以满足不断生长的胎儿的需要Studies have shown that研究表明iron intake by non-pregnant women is often inadequate;未怀女性摄入的铁元素常常不足therefore, increasing iron intake因此,在前增加铁的摄入before pregnancy is necessary.是非常必要的Pregnant women need at least 27 milligrams妇每天至少需要27毫克铁元素of iron a day which is higher than这一数值要稍微高一些the 15-18 milligrams needed for non-pregnant women.和未怀妇女15至18毫克的需求量相比Iron is most available from red meats and chicken.铁元素的最常见的食物来源是红肉和鸡肉Plant sources of iron include spinach, kale,铁的植物来源包括菠菜,甘蓝菜leafy greens, beans, and fortified cereals.绿叶蔬菜,黄豆,加强型杂粮等However, the iron in these foods is poorly absorbed.但是,这些食物中的铁元素并未被很好地吸收Therefore, vegetarians and women who do not eat meat因此,素食者和不吃肉的女性should increase iron absorption应当增加铁的摄入量by combining plant-based sources of iron多吃含铁的植物with Vitamin C-rich foods,和富含维生素C的食物for example, try a spinach salad with Mandarin oranges例如,尝试一下蜜桔和菠菜的沙拉or cereal with strawberries.或是草莓与杂粮沙拉And in many cases, an iron supplement is necessary很多情况下,铁元素补品也是很必要的to ensure meeting the requirements能够满足人体for this important nutrient.对铁元素的需求 Article/201503/365301。
  • 栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201503/364957。
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