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2019年08月25日 22:28:55|来源:国际在线|编辑:导医在线
7.Chess Therapy7.国际象棋疗法Sometimes healing is best done in the company of kings and queens. Patients get clear about their feelings in chess therapy, a technique used to reach patients who have trouble communicating verbally. The idea of using board games to help patients learn problem-solving skills was first used by Persian scholar Rhazes (AD 852–932) during his tenure as chief physician at a Baghdad hospital. Since then, the game of chess has been used to represent real-life problems, allowing patients to explore skills like conflict resolution and decision making.有时国王和王后的陪伴能实现最佳治疗效果。患者很清楚自己在国际象棋疗法中获得的感受,该疗法用于影响那些口头沟通有障碍的患者。利用棋牌游戏帮助患者学习解决问题的技巧,最初是波斯学者拉齐(公元852–932)在巴格达一家医院担任主任医师期间使用过。此后,国际象棋的游戏被用来代表现实问题,从而使患者有机会探索解决冲突和做出决策的技能。One case study reports that chess was an excellent outlet for a 16-year-old boy with schizoid personality disorder who felt emotionally isolated from other people. While he struggled to form relationships, playing chess helped him see his therapist as a partner and confidant. As therapy went on, he felt safe sharing his feelings, all during the banter of discussing his next move.一个案例研究报告显示,对于一个患有分裂性人格障碍并在感情上与他人隔绝的16岁男孩而言,国际象棋是绝佳的发泄渠道。虽然他努力建立关系,下棋让他把治疗师视为合作伙伴和知己。随着治疗的推移,他分享感受时感到很安全,一切都融入了讨论他下一步棋的轻松氛围。Rooks and pawns allow patients to act out fantasies and explore impulses. Simply questioning why the patient has decided to move a piece in a certain way might give way to conversation about a bigger issue.车和卒让患者表现出幻想并且探索冲动。只关心为什么患者决定以某种方式移动一枚棋子的问题,应该让位于讨论更重大的内容。6.Wilderness Therapy6.荒野疗法When the campsite is set up and the fire is lit, the doctor is in. Wilderness therapy is a successful, and sometimes controversial, way to help troubled youth by teaching life and social skills on the hiking trail. Intensive group therapy and one-on-one sessions are coupled with outdoor activities like mountain climbing and fly-fishing to teach self-reliance and responsibility. Programs promise to reform even the most wayward of offenders, including juvenile delinquents and teens with depression, anger management issues, or eating disorders.当露营地搭建完毕,篝火已经点燃时,医生的作用就开始显现了。荒野疗法是一种通过在远足途中传授生活经验和社交技巧来帮助内心有困扰的年轻人的方法,这种方法很成功但有时候也具争议。密集的集体治疗和一对一治疗总是与室外活动一起进行,比如爬山和假蝇钓鱼(译者注:指用假苍蝇钓鱼的技巧或运动,流行于欧美)可以教会人们自立和负责任。这些活动甚至可以改变异常任性而不守规矩的人,包括青少年罪犯和患有抑郁症、情绪管理有问题或者饮食失调的青年。While wilderness therapy can be effective, certain methods have come under fire for using unethical, and sometimes downright abusive, techniques to help struggling youth. Wilderness programs are loosely regulated, so not all programs are staffed by qualified professionals. Upon closer examination, some ;therapy; groups seemed to be just military-style boot camps with little mental health benefit.虽然荒野疗法可以达到预期效果,但是运用不道德的方法,有时甚至是残忍的方法来帮助苦苦挣扎的年轻人,这遭到了强烈指责。由于荒野治疗项目监管不严,导致并不是所有的项目活动都是由专业人员来开展。最近的项目检查结果表明,一些治疗小组似乎就是军事化训练营地,实际上对心理健康几乎毫无益处。Most famous for his controversial wilderness therapy programs is Steve Cartisano, founder of the Challenger Foundation and several other programs throughout the US and South America. Cartisano faced negligent homicide charges when two teens died during excursions that he was supervising. Although he has been acquitted of that charge, a string of abuse allegations have followed him wherever he sets up shop. He maintains his innocence and his dedication to helping youth, but his whereabouts are currently unknown.史蒂夫·卡迪萨诺(Steve Cartisano)因颇具争议的荒野治疗项目而出名,他创立了;挑战者基金会;(Challenger Foundation)和美国、南美地区其他一些项目。卡迪萨诺被指控因疏忽而杀人,因为在他监管下的两个少年死于远程旅行。尽管最后他被宣判无罪释放,但是无论他到哪里去开店,一系列的辩解都会笼罩他的左右。他继续保持清白并努力帮助青少年,但是他的行踪目前无人知晓。Even legitimate wilderness therapy groups have been criticized for partnering with teen escort companies to forcibly remove unwilling participants from their homes to attend the program. While controversy and risk exist, wilderness therapy might be a creative way to teach life skills when other methods have failed.即便是合法的荒野理疗小组也受到过批评,因为他们与一些少年托运公司合作,强制那些不愿参加他们项目的人离开家去参加他们的项目。尽管存在争议和风险,当其他方法不管用时,荒野疗法可能是一种即可以传授生活技巧而又颇具创意的方法了。5.Hypnotherapy5.催眠疗法Hypnotism might seem like a magic trick, but it actually has the power to help people break into their subconscious to get to the cause of their problems, like smoking or overeating. Hypnotherapy helps patients change unwanted behaviors with suggestions of new behavior patterns during guided meditation sessions.催眠理疗法就像具有魔法的花招一样,但是它确实可以帮助人们进入潜意识并且找到问题的原因,像抽烟和过度饮食这一类问题那样。在冥想过程中,催眠疗法帮助患者改变他们讨厌的行为,并给予他们不同行为方式的建议。The feeling of ;zoning out,; such as while driving long distance or lying on the beach, is what a hypnotic state feels like. While hypnotized, the patient is not asleep, but rather extremely relaxed and sensitive to suggestion. Psychotherapists who use this method believe that while hypnotized, a patient can uncover subconscious negativity and replace it with new ways of thinking or feeling.;走出来;的感觉——长时间开车或者躺在沙滩上的感觉与催眠状态下的感觉一样。被催眠后,患者并没有睡着,他们对一些建议表现得极度放松和敏感。使用这种理疗方法的理疗师认为,当实施催眠术时,病人会暴露自己潜意识里的消极之处,并且会用新的想法或者感觉取代它。Skilled hypnotherapists begin the process with a relaxation exercise to clear the mind and to release tension. (Think of the classic line, ;You#39;re getting very sleepy.;) From there, the hypnotist expertly guides the patient through suggestions to solve the problem, like choosing healthier snacks or eating smaller portions to lose weight. The brain, much like a sponge in this moment, will supposedly start to incorporate those recommendations into new patterns of thought.经验丰富的催眠师刚开始都会让患者做些放松的活动来清醒大脑,释放压力。(想想经典的台词,你会变得睡意朦胧)之后,催眠师会给病人一些建议来指导他们解决一些问题,比如选择更健康的小吃或者吃少一点来减肥。大脑在此刻就像一块海绵,它开始吸收这些建议然后转变成新的思维模式。Hypnotherapy is meant to be used alongside regular talk therapy and not just on its own. Patients can even learn to hypnotize themselves to find stress relief on their own.催眠疗法意味着,长时间有规律的说话治疗并不是单单靠催眠。病人甚至可以学着自己对自己实施催眠术来解压。4.Sandplay Therapy4.箱庭疗法Building sand castles is fun in the summertime and may have therapeutic value, too. Much like chess therapy, sandplay therapy offers those with trouble communicating the chance to share their feelings by designing scenarios with figurines in sand trays. Children, and sometimes adults, relay their feelings through expressive creations without ever having to speak a word.夏日堆沙堡,既有趣又有治疗作用。箱庭疗法和象棋疗法相似:有交流障碍的人可以用沙盘里的小模型设计不同场景,这为他们提供了分享情感的机会。不光是孩子,成人也可以一言不发,通过沙盘设计表达自己的情感。Inspired by the teachings of Carl Jung, Swiss psychologist Dora Kalff developed the sandplay technique to communicate with patients who might have difficulty sharing their feelings as a result of trauma or abuse. Patients are provided with trays of sand and a variety of figurines. They are instructed to create stories about the toys and the patterns of play that emerge can often mirror real problems in the patient#39;s life.箱庭疗法,用于治疗那些因精神创伤或者虐待而有情感表达障碍的患者,是瑞士精神分析学家卡尔夫基于荣格的思想而发展的一项心理疗法。患者会得到一些沙盘和形态各异的小雕塑,在治疗师的指导下给玩具编造一些故事,而这些故事脚本往往都会反应他们在现实生活中遇到的难题。Therapists are trained to pick up on those symbols. When a child makes adult figures act aggressively while child figures behave anxiously, the therapist might ask the child to explain why older people are mean to little kids. A conversation about the toys might give way to sharing details of an abusive parent. While discussing trauma or abuse can be difficult, the playfulness of the sand sets the stage for healing conversation to take place.治疗师经过训练要掌握以下技巧。当孩子的言行惹怒家长,而孩子表现出焦虑时,治疗师可以引导孩子说说;为什么成人会对孩子如此刻薄;。与其谈论玩具,不如聊聊父母虐待的细节。直接聊痛苦或虐待的事可能不会顺利,但有了箱庭疗法,心理治疗就有了谈话治疗的平台。审校:Amy.L 编辑:Freya然 校对:落花生 /201507/385499Barrage, geek culture and ACG (animation, comic and game) – behind this *jargon beats the pulse of the newest generation of youths. Born from the mid-1990s to the 2000s, this group is called Generation Z.弹幕,极客文化和动漫游(动画,漫画和游戏)——这些行话背后隐含的是最新一代年轻人跳动的脉搏。这些上世纪90年代中期至2000年代出生的一群人,被叫做Z一代。China Youth Daily has called them the Internet’s *indigenous residents; The Beijing News said their lifestyles seem naturally integrated with technology; and Zhang Xiaoquan, the 1995-born author of “I am Different From This World”, noted outsiders must crack their code of *discourse to gain access to the complexity of their minds. Generation Z is coming to take hold of Chinese campuses, and it is expected to remake the world as we know it with new values, judgments, ways of living and a fresh outlook on the world.《中国青年报》称这群人为网络原住民;《新京报》称他们的生活方式似乎与科技天生就是一体;张小权,这位《我和这个世界不一样》的95后作者,指出外界的人想要进入他们复杂的内心世界需要破解他们的话语密码。Online indigenous网络原住民According to Zhang Baoyi, the head of Tianjin Academy of Social Sciences, the post-1995 generation is hypersocial online. Since their childhood, their social behavior has been molded by online communities where the limitations of space, time and identity are stretched thin.天津社会科学院研究所所长张宝义称,95后热衷网络社交。从童年开始,他们的社会行为就被网络社区所塑造。在网络社区那里,空间,时间和身份变得淡化。“So the post-1995 generation is very adept at communicating with strangers and making friends to expand their aly diverse circle of *acquaintances,” said Zhang. “The drawback is that when caught in a face-to-face communication scenario, they could seem awkward.”“因此95后能非常娴熟地与陌生人聊天,交朋友,进而扩大本已多元的社交圈,”张说道。“这样子的缺点是如果换做面对面交流,他们可能会略显尴尬。”Where the post-1980s and post-1990s generations expanded their real-world social connections via the Internet, the reverse is true for the post-1995 generation: real-life connections tend to supplement online friend groups.80后、90后通过网络扩大现实生活的社交,95后则正好相反:现实生活中的社交是网友圈的补充。Young *paradox年轻的悖论Zhang Xiaoquan, the post-1995 writer, sees his peers’ double identity as the hallmark of his generation.张小权,95后作家,将同龄人的双重身份视为他这代人的印记。They can sometimes seem *blunt and wild, but they are also sensitive enough to capture slight emotional fluctuations like, say, in a selfie. “Post 1995-ers” might be the most plugged-in generation, but they’re still capable of being overwhelmed by the loneliness, fear and sense of having missed connections caused by being a single child.他们有时候看起来直率而不受约束,却也足够敏感到能捕捉,比如说自拍照里人的轻微情绪波动。“95后”可能是与科技结合最紧密的一代,但是作为独生子女,他们也可能会被孤独、恐惧和缺乏人际网络这些感觉吞噬。“I think that’s the paradox shaping this generation of Chinese who have opened their eyes to a world driven by a rush of technology that brings change to almost everything,” said Zhang, who is now enrolled at the Beijing Film Academy.“我想,这就是塑造这代中国人的悖论,他们看到的世界被科技的急流推动,而这股急流几乎给一切带来改变”,在北京电影学院就读的张小说道。Promising batch前途无量的一代However, often described as *capricious, bold and *maverick, the post-1995 generation is reported to be more socially responsible than their predecessors, according to a report conducted by the Ministry of Education on about 7,000 college students born after 1995.然而有报告称,尽管经常被冠以反复无常、放肆大胆、特立独行之类词汇,95后比他们之前的一代更具社会责任心。这是教育部调查了约7000名95后大学生后得出的结论。“Naturally tech-savvy and Internet literate, the post-1995 generation is more responsible for their online behavior and expression than post-1980s,” survey project administrator Wei Jinping told China Education Daily.“95后天生精通科技与网络,他们对自己的网络言行更加负责,”该调查的项目管理员魏进平这样告诉《中国教育报》。With various tags aly attached to post 1995-ers, the rising of a new generation is bound to bring more surprises.95后已被贴上诸多标签,这新一代的成长必将带来更多惊喜。 /201504/372533

I admit: I was startled last week when I saw the first photos of Michelle Obama debarking in Japan at the beginning of her five-day Asian tour to promote the “Let Girls Learn” education campaign.上周,米歇尔·奥巴马(Michelle Obama)到达日本,开始为期五天的亚洲之行,推广“让女孩学习”(Let Girls Learn)教育计划。我承认:看到她到日本的第一波照片时,我惊呆了。Not because I don’t think it’s a terrific initiative; I do. I have two daughters, and think the more that can be done to make girls feel empowered by their academic experiences, the better.不是因为我觉得这个计划不好,我觉得它好极了。我有两个女儿,在让女孩通过学习获得力量方面,我认为做得越多越好。And not because I don’t think the first lady should be emphasizing the partnership with Japan and Cambodia. The visits are laudable.也不是因为我认为第一夫人不应该加强与日本和柬埔寨的合作。我认为她的访问值得称赞。But because of her dress: a citrine-colored, small-waisted, full-skirted print Kenzo. The dress, on first glance, telegraphed a very 1950s femininity. It seemed like such a nonpower choice in which to deliver a message about empowerment that it took me aback — even on vacation, surfing the news in a desultory fashion.是因为她的裙子:高田贤三(Kenzo)的柠檬黄收腰宽摆印花连衣裙。乍看上去,这条裙子传达出浓重的20世纪50年代女性气质。她选择这样一条没有力量的裙子去传递关于获取权力的信息,尽管当时我正在度假,只是随便看看新闻而已,这张图片还是让我惊呆了。Especially because the Kenzo dress was followed by a bright orange-red Altuzarra blazer and skirt, bedecked in blooms; which was followed by a stylized leaf print Dries Van Noten coat over a striped T-shirt and black pants; which was followed by a carnation-print Carolina Herrera frock; which was followed by an even brighter geometric Alice amp; Olivia shell and matching skirt; which was followed by a v-neck, silky, swirling-skirted, color block Roksanda Ilincic dress — the last image of Mrs O. before she boarded her plane home.更有甚者,在高田贤三连衣裙之后,她又穿了鲜艳的橙红色奥图扎拉(Altuzarra)上衣和半身裙,上面印着盛开鲜花的图案;之后是德赖斯·范诺顿(Dries Van Noten)的艺术化叶子图案印花外衣,里面是条纹T恤和黑裤子;之后是卡罗琳娜·海莱娜(Carolina Herrera)康乃馨印花连衣裙;之后是更为鲜艳的爱丽丝amp;奥利维亚(Alice amp; Olivia)几何图案套裙;她登机回国前的最后一个造型是罗克桑达·伊林契奇(Roksanda Ilincic)V领丝质宽摆色块连衣裙。However much you may want to dismiss sartorial stereotype, it’s inarguable that such styles spark an almost Pavlovian response in the lizard brain: They bring to mind the decades when gender roles were codified and distinct, when women’s sphere was the home, and their game plan didn’t necessarily included higher education.不管你多不愿理会装款式给人留下的刻板印象,无庸争辩,她这些造型就算在蜥蜴的头脑中也会唤起条件反射般的反应。它们让人想起性别角色严格鲜明的年代,女人的活动空间就在家里,她们的人生计划中不一定包括高等教育。As a woman, and one who spends a lot of time thinking about the messages women’s clothes send about their identity, I found the apparent clothes/context disjunction to be jarring. Even for a first lady who is known for her affection for a print and a dress, even in countries where color and nature are celebrated.我是一个女人,同时也花很多时间思考女性着装所传达的身份信息,我觉得奥巴马夫人的装与环境的不协调非常刺眼——即便第一夫人以偏爱印花和连衣裙闻名,即便是在那些热爱色和自然的国家。Shouldn’t she have worn a sharp-shouldered suit to talk about achievement? What about a red sheath dress, as often favored by Sheryl (“Lean In”) Sandberg? As long as we are embracing fashion clichés, wouldn’t those be more appropriate?她难道不应该穿着肩部笔挺的西去讨论如何达成目标吗?或者穿上《向前一步》(Lean In)的作者,谢莉尔·桑德伯格(Sheryl Sandberg)常穿的红色紧身连衣裙?既然我们都理解时装中的那些陈规,那么那些衣难道不是更合适吗?Which was when I began to wonder if there wasn’t, perhaps, something else going on. And I don’t mean the “she wears what she wants” piffle.这时,我开始想,也许还有其他原因。我指的不是“她只是穿她想穿的衣”这样的废话。After all, given that pretty much every image disseminated during the five days of the Asia visit was captioned “Mrs. Obama on her ‘Let Girls Learn’ trip” (or some variation thereon), the association between what the first lady was wearing and what she was there to discuss was unavoidable. Especially because she was the first sitting first lady to visit Cambodia; especially because there was no other through line; no other linking factor between the garments.毕竟,在这五天的亚洲访问中,几乎每张照片都配以“奥巴马夫人的‘让女孩学习’之行”之类的图注,所以人们难免会讨论第一夫人的着装与她的议题之间的联系。尤其是,她是首位访问柬埔寨的在任美国第一夫人;这些装没有其他贯彻始终的主题;它们之间没有其他联系。They were not all by female designers, for example, as may have been expected on a trip conceived to promote female achievement and the places sticking with school can get you.例如,它们并非都出自女设计师之手。要知道,她的亚洲之行意在倡导女性成就,提倡接受教育能让女人得到更多东西,所以人们难免会有这样的期望。They were not all by American designers, as has been traditional for American first ladies before Mrs. Obama, who saw their role as promoting local industry.它们并非都出自美国设计师之手,这是奥巴马夫人之前的美国第一夫人的传统做法,她们把推广美国本地品牌视为己任。And they were not by Asian designers, an occasional form of sartorial diplomacy employed by traveling politicians trying to make nice with the countries they visit. Nor were they all aly seen, shopped-her-closet numbers. What they were (full skirts, belts, neat tops and all) was mostly — well, girlie.它们也并非都出自亚洲设计师之手。政治家们想与访问国交好时,偶尔会采取这种装外交策略。它们也不是奥巴马夫人之前穿过的衣。这些宽摆裙、腰带、小巧精致的上衣大都是,呃,都是少女风格。Very. Almost “Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt” girlie. You know, the Tina Fey-produced Netflix series that is having a fashion moment because of its unironic embrace of bright colors and … well, girlie clothes.强烈的少女风格。几乎是《我本坚强》(Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt)里的那种少女风格。《我本坚强》是蒂娜·菲(Tina Fey)制作的Netflix电视剧,因其对鲜艳色和少女风格装不带讽刺的钟爱,如今已成为一股时尚潮流。Which may actually have been the point.这可能是真正的原因所在。We live in the era of the Merkelization of female political dress, which has seen women like Ms. Merkel, the German chancellor, and Hillary Rodham Clinton adopt what is effectively the male uniform in softer, brighter colors to remove the topic from the conversation. (It’s a pantsuit. It’s a beige/orange/teal pantsuit. Enough said.) Another way to explain the strategy is “bore them into talking about the issues.”我们生活在一个女性政治装默克尔化的时代。德国总理默克尔(Merkel)和希拉里·罗德姆·克林顿(Hillary Rodham Clinton)等女人选择穿着颜色更柔和、鲜艳的男性化装,避免让装成为一个话题(她穿的是裤套装。米黄色/橙色/蓝绿色裤套装。不用多说了)。这种策略的另一个用意在于“让他们觉得无趣,所以只能谈正事”。There’s nothing wrong with it (men do it, too), and it prevents a situation like the one that arose a few years ago when the French housing minister Cécile Duflot wore a floral dress to speak in Parliament, and was met by catcalls and whistles, which then spawned a whole debate about her dress and the reaction to her dress, and entirely overshadowed whatever it was they had been debating at the time. But what does it say about the visual identity of role models?这样做没什么错(男人们也这么做),它能避免下面这种情况:几年前,法国住房部长塞茜尔·迪弗洛(Cécile Duflot)身穿印花连衣裙在议会上讲话,观众以嘘声和口哨回应,随后出现了关于她的连衣裙以及对她连衣裙反应的大讨论,完全盖过了当时他们辩论的任何议题。但是关于榜样人物的视觉形象,人们是怎么说的来着?In choosing to meet young women in clothes that, perhaps, make her look like them — or how they may want to look if they didn’t have to wear school uniforms — Mrs. Obama was implying: You can dress like a girl and dream about getting a Ph.D. (or a law degree, if we are being picayune), too.奥巴马夫人在与年轻女孩见面时,选择身穿跟她们相似的装——或者她们不用穿校时可能想穿的装——这样或许是为了表明:你可以穿得像个女孩,同时梦想获得士学位(或者狭隘地说,法律学位)。As one San Francisco blog wrote about the “Kimmy Schmidt” fashions: “By putting Kimmy in florals and bright colors, the stylists for ‘Unbreakable’ prove that feminine outfits can represent strength as much as they represents whimsicality. Home girl may be wearing flowers but you know she can kick butt.”就像旧金山的一个客对《我本坚强》的时装风格做出的评价:“《我本坚强》的造型师们让基米(Kimmy)穿上印花装或者色鲜艳的装,是想明,女性化的装既能体现随心所欲,也能体现力量。居家女孩也许穿着印花装,但是你知道她们也很强悍”。How do you erase a stereotype? You confront it, and force others to confront their own preconceptions about it, and then you own it. And in doing so you denude it of its power.如何摆脱刻板印象?办法就是面对它,迫使其他人直面自己对此的看法,然后你就掌握了主动权。这样它就没意义了。Think of it as a twist on Gloria Steinem’s wake-up call to 40: That is what a successful, well-educated woman looks like. Carnations, acacia blossoms, full skirts and all. It’s probably about time we learned.把这当做格洛丽亚·斯泰纳姆(Gloria Steinem)对40岁女人警告的另一种理解吧:成功的、受过良好教育的女人就该是那样。康乃馨、金合欢花、宽摆裙什么的。我们或许早该学习了。 /201503/367037

LONDON — The grainy black-and-white home movie lasts about 17 seconds. It shows a young Princess Elizabeth, the future Queen Elizabeth II, raising her hand in the air in the style of a Nazi salute, an apparent youthful pantomime. The queen mother and Elizabeth’s uncle, Prince Edward, who would become King Edward VIII, also make the gesture.伦敦——在一段长约17秒、颗粒感很强的黑白家庭录影中,年轻的伊丽莎白公主,即后来的伊丽莎白女王二世,举手行了一个纳粹礼,显然是一场童趣的胡闹。做出同样姿势的还有女王的母亲以及伊丽莎白的伯父爱德华王子,即后来的英国国王爱德华八世。Three days after the footage of the royal family, taken in 1933 or 1934, was published on the website of The Sun, the images of the young Elizabeth continued to reverberate throughout Britain on Monday. The story — under the headline “Their Royal Heilnesses” — has stirred debates about the limits of press freedom and royal privacy; the imperative of historical transparency; and whether an 89-year-old monarch should be judged for a gesture made when she was 6 or 7 years old.这段王室家庭录影拍摄于1933年或1934年间,在《太阳报》网站发布它三天之后,本周一,伊丽莎白的这些儿时影像继续在英国掀起波澜。这篇名为《殿下万岁》(Their Royal Heilnesses)的报道引发了争论:对于新闻自由和王室隐私的界限,历史透明的重要性,以及一位89岁的君主是否应该因在6岁或7岁时的一个手势被说三道四,人们看法不一。Indeed, some critics have assailed The Sun for publishing the , saying it unfairly sullies the image of a future queen who was too young to understand the meaning of what she was doing. There has also been an outpouring of support for the queen, a beloved and unifying figure, on social media.事实上有一些人在抨击《太阳报》(The Sun)发布录影的举动,说这种对未来女王的形象玷污是不公平的,当时她还太年轻,不理解自己做的事情的含义。在社交媒体上,这位受爱戴、极具凝聚力的人物得到了众多持。But other commentators have praised the newspaper for prodding a historical reckoning, saying it could enhance understanding of the royal family’s attitudes toward Nazi Germany, in particular those of Prince Edward, who has been accused of sympathizing with the Nazis. As Edward VIII, he renounced the throne in December 1936 to marry the American divorcée Wallis Simpson.但也有一些者赞扬了该报对历史的真实展现,说此举可以让人们更好地理解王室对纳粹德国的态度,特别是爱德华王子的态度,之前就有人指责他同情纳粹。爱德华八世为了与离过婚的美国人沃利斯·辛普森(Wallis Simpson)结婚,在1936年12月放弃了王位。“It is disappointing that film shot eight decades ago and apparently from H.M.’s personal family archive has been obtained and exploited in this manner,” Buckingham Palace said in a statement. It is not clear how The Sun obtained the footage.白金汉宫在一份声明中说:“这段影像拍摄于约80年前,似乎是从女王陛下的个人家庭档案中获取的,它以这种方式遭到利用,令人深感失望。”目前尚不清楚《太阳报》是如何获得这段录影的。Mayor Boris Johnson of London defended the queen and argued that the royal family could not have foreseen Hitler’s future barbarism.伦敦市长鲍里斯·约翰逊(Boris Johnson)为女王辩护说,王室无法预见到希特勒后来的野蛮行径。“It makes my blood boil to think that anyone should use this image in any way to impugn the extraordinary record of service of Her Majesty to this country,” Mr. Johnson wrote in The Telegraph. “She was a child, a tiny child, and she is making that parodic salute long before her family could possibly have grasped what Hitler and Hitlerism was really all about.”“想到任何人可能以任何方式利用这些影像来抨击女王陛下的非凡功绩,我就感到自己的血在沸腾,”约翰逊在《电讯报》(The Telegraph)中写道,“那时她还是个孩子,一个年幼的孩子,她模仿别人行纳粹礼的时候,她的家人还远未明白希特勒和希特勒主义的真实企图。”The Sun defended its decision to publish the images, saying it was a matter of history and in the public interest. “We publish them today knowing they do not reflect badly on our queen, her late sister or mother in any way,” it said.《太阳报》为发布这些影像做辩解,说这是个历史问题,而且符合公众利益。它表示:“我们发布影像,是知道它们并不会对女王,以及她已故的或母亲造成任何不良影响。”The film shows members of the royal family at their Balmoral estate in rural Scotland. At the time, the Hitler salute was being mocked in some quarters in Britain, and making the gesture did not necessarily signal support for him or his policies. “Families of all kinds larked around aping the stiff-armed antics of the faintly comic character with the Charlie Chaplin mustache who won power in Germany,” The Sun wrote.这段录影显示了王室成员在苏格兰乡村巴尔莫勒尔别墅的情形。当时一些英国人嘲笑希特勒的敬礼,做出这个姿势并不一定就意味着对希特勒或其政策的持。“当时各种家庭都会站在一起,模仿希特勒这种手臂僵直的古怪动作。这位德国掌权者有查理·卓别林(Charlie Chaplin)式的胡子,略有点滑稽,”《太阳报》写道。But some commentators have countered that by 1933 the Nazi Party was aly on the rise. There had aly been attacks on Jewish businesses, and the first anti-Semitic laws were passed in April of that year.但一些人士反驳说,1933年纳粹党已经处在上升阶段。已经有犹太人的企业遭到攻击,同年4月,德国还通过了第一部反犹太法律。Ben Judah, who is writing a book on London and the changing British identity, noted that in 1933, newspapers in Britain had accounts of Nazi repression. “Waking up to the image on The Sun made me feel that in the 1930s there was a whole world and depth of anti-Semitism about Jews being hidden behind regal demeanor and gentle froideur,” he said.本·胡达(Ben Judah)是一名作家,正在撰写一本关于伦敦以及变化中的英国身份的书籍。他指出,在1933年,英国的报纸已经报道过纳粹的镇压行动。“看到《太阳报》上的影像,我觉得在1930年代,在帝王风范和文雅的泠漠之后,掩藏着广泛而深刻的反犹太主义,”他说。Much of the coverage in the British news media of the affair has focused on the extent to which the footage suggested that members of the royal family could have been sympathetic to Hitler or Nazi Germany. The B wrote that in October 1937, Edward and his wife visited Germany, entertaining the notion that Edward could become “a figurehead for an international movement for peace on Hitler’s terms.” The couple met with Hitler, the B said.英国新闻媒体对此事的报道纷纷聚焦在一个问题上:这段录影暗示了王室成员在多大程度上同情希特勒和纳粹德国。据B报道,爱德华和妻子在1937年10月访问了德国,让人怀疑爱德华会不会给“希特勒构想的世界和平运动充当傀儡”。B说夫妇俩与希特勒见了面。The queen mother and her husband, King George VI, have been revered in Britain for their stoicism during World War II, in part because of their resolve to stay in London.女王的母亲及其丈夫乔治六世国王因在二战期间表现坚毅而受到尊崇,部分原因是他们坚决地留在了伦敦。 /201507/387340

Modern men spend more on impulse buys than women do, research has revealed。调查显示,现代男性冲动购物比女性花费更多。A study found that men regularly shell out an average of £25-a-week on items they bought on a whim, while women spend close to £19-per-week。一项调查发现,男性平均每星期在冲动购物上花费25英镑,而女性花费近19英镑。Food, beer and DVDs are the most common treats for males while clothes, magazines and wine topped the list for women along with books, shoes and toiletries。男性冲动购物最常买的是食物、啤酒和DVD,而女性冲动购物买得最多的是衣、杂志和红酒,还有书、鞋子和化妆品。The poll of 2,000 customers found that over a typical adult lifetime around £70,217.28 will be frittered away purely to satisfy the overwhelming urge to shop。这项涵盖了2000名消费者的调查发现,成年人一生中因一时兴起而消费的东西平均会花掉约7.02万英镑。Researcher Emily Stag said: #39;Twenty pounds a week might not seem a lot, but can add up to a huge amount over a lifetime。研究人员艾米丽?斯泰格说:“每周20英镑也许看起来不是很多,但一辈子这么积累起来数额就相当大了。”#39;For £70,000 you could easily put a large deposit on a house, pay off all your debits or buy a sports car。“有7万英镑你可以轻松地给房子付巨额首付,偿还所有的欠款,或是买辆跑车。#39;General consensus would suggest consumers are trying to save every penny at the moment, but our research shows we still like to treat ourselves or our loved ones.#39;“人们普遍都认为消费者在日常购物中会能省则省,但是我们的研究显示,我们依然愿意花钱满足自己或爱人。”The study found triggers such as receiving birthday money, coming into an unexpected windfall such as cash back from a company, or a small win on the lottery often result in spur of the moment purchases。研究发现,收到生日礼金、或是得到一些意外之财,例如公司返还现金或中了小额票等,这些通常都会诱发冲动消费。Six out of ten women admit they regularly give in to temptation if there is a sale on and six out of ten also cited retail therapy as the main reason for shopping on impulse。十分之六的女性承认自己经常抵制不住特价促销的诱惑,另外还有十分之六的女性说她们冲动消费的主要原因是通过购物让自己开心。Only four out of ten men said the same thing。只有十分之四的男性是因为上述原因冲动购物的。It also emerged one in three girls admit they don#39;t bother telling their other half about their recent purchases。研究还发现,三分之一的女性承认,她们不会告诉另一半自己最近买了什么东西。Furthermore one in five couples argue as a direct result of overspending each week。另外,五分之一的夫妇会因为每周花费过多而吵嘴。 /201507/384131

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