楼主:365爱问 时间:2019年09月16日 08:53:40 点击:0 回复:0
Disease is common, affecting every person at some point in their life. However, there are those unlucky few who contract some the rarer disease—those that seem to do the most damage and are often the hardest to treat, let alone cure. Here are 10 diseases and disorders you really want to avoid.疾病非常普遍,每个人在生命的不同时刻都会受其影响。然而,总有少数不幸的人们会接触一些极为罕见的疾病——这些疾病往往危害甚重、极难治疗、更别谈治愈。这里将介绍10种我们确实想避免的疾病或机能紊乱。10.Trigeminal Neuralgia10.三叉神经痛This particular disorder affects the fifth cranial nerve, one of the most widely sp in a person#39;s face. Known to hospitals as the ;suicide disease,; there are two types. Type 1 is the acute, involving unbelievable pain shooting through the sufferer#39;s face that lasts for as long as two minutes. These attacks can be joined together over a period of two hours of agony.Type 2 is less painful than Type 1, but still one of the hardest hits the human body can take. It is constant, rather than sporadic, with a painful burning or electric shock feeling lasting for years. Regular pain medication like morphine has no effect and anti-convulsion drugs often lose their effectiveness. Various surgical procedures have shown mild success, but are rarely anything more than temporary fixes.这种官能紊乱主要发生在第五对脑神经,第五对脑神经是在人体面部分布最广的一种脑神经。医院中著名的;自杀性疾病;有两种。一种是急性的,其导致患者整个面部都贯穿一种难以言喻的疼痛,并持续2分钟之久。并且这种突然袭来的疼痛会伴随超过两个小时的极大痛苦。另一种相较第一种疼痛略弱,但依然是人体最难承受的一种。这种疼痛并非间歇性发作,而是持续不断,伴有多年的痛苦灼烧感或电击样感受。像吗啡等常规治疗疼痛的药物对此都没有效果,而抗痉挛药物在它面前也疗效尽失。虽然有各种手术方法小有成效,但除了暂时修复之外也没什么好方法根除这种病症。9.Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever9.马尔堡出血热First diagnosed in 1967 after an outbreak in a number of labs throughout Germany and Yugoslavia, Marburg hemorrhagic fever is a disease nearly identical to that caused by the Ebola virus. Monkeys who had been imported from Africa were infected and sp the disease while they were being used for polio research. So far, it is extremely rare, with less than 1,000 cases reported to date, and it#39;s almost always found in Central Africa.The African fruit bat is believed to be the main source of infection, though how it sps to humans isn#39;t quite known at this point. The initial symptoms are extremely close to much more common diseases such as malaria, so proper diagnosis can be quite tricky. If the infection is severe enough, bleeding in the mouth and rectum and neurologic problems arise. Due to the lack of scientific knowledge about the Marburg fever, there is no established treatment, but plasma and blood protein transplants have shown good results. As of right now, the fatality rate is wide-ranging, ranging from 23–90 percent.马尔堡出血热是在德国和南斯拉夫的几所实验室中暴发后发现的,这种疾病几乎与伊波拉病毒引起的出血热一模一样。由非洲运来的猴子在做脊髓灰质炎研究时感染并传播了这种病毒。迄今为止这种疾病极端罕见,数据报道不超过1000病例,且大多是在非洲中部发现的。非洲果蝇被认为是主要的感染源,但其通过什么途径传染给人类尚且未知。最初的症状和疟疾一般的常见疾病症状极其相似,因此需要足够的警觉来做出正确的诊断。感染严重到一定程度时,嘴和直肠会出血、神经方面的问题也会显露。由于对马尔堡出血热缺乏科学的认知,所以至今还没有成熟的治疗方案,但输血浆和血液蛋白的效果还是不错的。就现在来说,它的死亡率分布很广,从23%到90%不等。8.Cancrum Oris8.走马疳More commonly known as noma, cancrum oris is a gangrenous infection which attacks the facial tissue of its victims, usually children under the age of 6. Especially prevalent in poverty-stricken areas of Africa, not only does the disease have an extremely high fatality rate (80 percent), but those who survive are left horribly disfigured and often ostracized. Affecting nearly 100,000 children every year, the antibodies in the sufferer#39;s body get confused and turn on the soft tissue in the cheek, mouth, and nose.Due to the swift progress of the disease, those infected are quickly disabled, unable to speak or eat normally. The disease has only made brief appearances in Europe and North American since its eradication over 100 years ago, most notably in the Nazi concentration camps. Antibiotics can stop the sp at the first sight of a lesion but they are often unavailable or too expensive.走马疳就是人们更为熟知的坏疽性口炎,其主要攻击病人的面部组织,呈坏疽性感染,而受害者通常是六岁以下儿童。尤其在非洲饥荒地区,这个疾病不仅有极高的死亡率(80%)且生还者还会留下一副恐怖的遭到损毁的面容,这使得他们常常被人排斥。每年感染将近100000个儿童,患者体内的抗体紊乱进而攻击面部、嘴巴、鼻子的软组织。由于疾病感染迅速,这些患者往往很快就会变得残疾,难以正常说话和进食。早在100年前在纳粹集中营便臭名昭著,但在其根除之后仅在欧洲和南美洲短暂出现过。有一些抗体可以在损伤刚出现时阻止其进一步传播,但客观上来说,这些抗体往往难以获得或者太过昂贵。7.Adhesive Capsulitis7.黏连性关节囊炎Known by the catchier name of ;frozen shoulder,; this disorder causes the sufferer#39;s shoulder to become so painful and stiff that it is virtually impossible to do anything with their arm. In addition, sleep can be difficult to come by, causing a myriad other health issues like depression and anxiety. As of now, there is no known cause for frozen shoulder, but diabetes and injuries or surgeries in the area are considered to be risk factors.Frozen shoulder affects an estimated 2 percent of the population at some point in their lives, making it one of the most common disorders on this list, and it is extremely hard to treat. Even with regular medication and constant physical rehabilitation, it can take up to a year to restore mobility. Although there have been cases where it went away on its own, it usually took up to two years to resolve itself.这种疾病因其一个更为醒目的名字;冷冻肩;而为人所知,它能引起患者肩膀疼痛僵硬而几乎无法用胳膊做任何事情。并且它使患者难以入睡而引起众多其他健康问题,诸如消极、焦虑等。迄今为止仍未知冷冻肩的致病原因,但糖尿病、伤痛或者该部位的手术被认为是风险因素。冷冻肩可在约2%的人群中影响他们的生活,它是此列表中最普遍的一种疾病,极难治愈。即使给予常规治疗和长期的躯体康复,仍然需要花费一年时间来恢复机体的可动性。尽管一些病例中这种疾病可自然消退,但也通常需要两年时间由其自身消解。6.Complex Regional Pain Syndrome6.复合型局部疼痛综合征Formally known as ;reflex sympathetic dystrophy,; CRPS is a lifelong systemic disease which manifests itself as extreme burning pain, bone and skin changes, and unbelievable sensitivity to touch. It#39;s one of the most painful diseases in the world, ranked above childbirth and amputation on the McGill Pain Index, a method of evaluating pain developed in the early 1970s. Initially believed to be a systemic failure of the sympathetic nervous system, researchers now believe it is triggered by trauma, especially to the extremities. However, this is just a guess as of right now, which is one of the reasons there is no cure.Various treatments have achieved a modicum of success, including one brought to us by the wisdom of tech support—;Have you tried turning it off and on again?; In 2003, a 14-year-old girl underwent treatment which consisted of a medically-induced coma with the intent of ;resetting; the pain connections in her body. This is generally considered a last-ditch effort, as it carries enormous risk and numerous potential side effects.;CROS;的正式名称是;反射性交感神经营养障碍;,它是一种终身的系统疾病,表现为灼烧样剧烈疼痛,骨骼皮肤的改变,还有对触摸呈现难以置信的敏感。它是世界上最疼痛的疾病之一,在麦吉尔疼痛指数(二十世纪七十年代早期开发用于评价疼痛的方法)排名中位居分娩和截肢之上。最终被认为是交感神经系统的系统衰竭,而现在研究者认为是由创伤尤其是肢体末端的创伤引发的。然而这只是现在一种猜测,而这种疾病目前无法治愈。各种治疗可实现一点点疗效,包括人们向我们集思过的一种技术持——;你试过将其关闭再打开吗?;2003年,一名14岁女孩接受了治疗,通过药物诱导昏迷的方式企图重置其体内的疼痛连接通路。通常认为这是最后一招,因为它可能伴随巨大风险和潜在的副作用。翻译:宁舒子 来源:前十网 /201508/396080Rapid advances in artificial intelligence are feared by many in Europe and the US, with scientists warning of mass unemployment. But in Singapore, where restrictions on foreign workers have left many companies struggling for staff, service sector businesses are increasingly finding automated solutions to their workforce crunch.人工智能领域的快速进步让欧美的许多人感到担忧,科学家们警告称,这可能导致大规模失业。但在新加坡,务行业的企业越来越发现机器人可以解决它们人手紧张的问题——新加坡限制外国工人就业让许多公司很难招到员工。From restaurants to hospitals, robots are being rolled out in a government-backed push to help businesses survive a tight labour market.在政府为帮助企业在供应紧张的劳动力市场存活下去而推出的举措下,从饭店到医院,多种机构均出现了机器人的身影。Louis Tan, chief operating officer of Singapore’s Mount Elizabeth Novena hospital, said: “The government is clamping down on foreign workers — there is difficulty in hiring even skilled workers. Technology has turned out to be one of the solutions.”新加坡伊丽莎白诺维娜医院(Mount Elizabeth Novena)首席运营官Louis Tan表示:“新加坡政府正在限制外国工人——哪怕雇佣熟练工人也很困难。事实明,技术是解决方案之一。”The hospital, a private medical facility run by the Parkway Pantai group, has turned to IBM’s Watson technology as an automated “nurse” to monitor patients’ vital signs in its intensive care unit.这家医院借助IBM的“沃森”(Watson)技术推出了机器人“护士”来监护重症病房中的病人的关键体征。伊丽莎白诺维娜医院是百汇班台集团(Parkway Pantai)运营的私立医疗务机构。The AI technology combines information from indicators such as blood pressure and heart rate, and uses a predictive algorithm to calculate the risk of a patient’s condition getting worse.人工智能技术结合血压、心率等指标信息,并使用预测性算法来计算患者病情恶化的风险。“In the past that required human integration and interpretation,” Mr Tan said. “And now we are using data analytics to help drive this.”Louis Tan表示:“在过去,这需要人类加以整合和解读。现在我们使用数据分析学来帮助解读。”The pilot, which was launched this year, has improved patient safety, Mr Tan added.他补充称,今年推出的试点项目让病人更加安全。He said: “It doesn’t mean nurses are absolved of responsibility. It just means they have another aid. It’s more efficient and safer for the patients.”他说:“这并不意味着护士无事可干了。它仅仅意味着她们又有了一个助手,提高了她们照顾病患的效率和安全性。”At Chilli Padi Nonya café, a restaurant serving a hybrid Malay-Chinese cuisine near the National University of Singapore, dirty dishes are gathered by a robotic waiter that trundles between tables chirping: “Could you help me to clear your table?”在辣椒香娘惹餐厅(Chilli Padi Nonya),穿梭于桌子间的机器人侍者收拾着脏碟子,还能用清脆的声音问道:“你能帮我收拾下桌子吗?”该餐馆位于新加坡国立大学(National University of Singapore)附近,提供马来菜和中国菜。The machine lacks the ability to pick up cups and plates itself. Instead customers place their used crockery in a tray it carries back to the kitchen.这种机器人无法自己拿起杯子和碟子。顾客们将他们用过的餐具放到托盘上,然后由机器人拿回厨房。Kannan Thangaraj, the restaurant’s manager, said: “In Singapore it’s very difficult to get manpower from overseas, so it’s very helpful to get a robot. The customers are coming back because of the robot. They like to see it.”餐厅经理卡纳安#8226;坦加拉贾(Kannan Thangaraj)表示:“在新加坡,从海外招募人手非常困难,因此使用机器人非常有帮助。顾客们因为机器人而成为回头客。他们喜欢看到机器人。”So far, only a handful of restaurants are involved in trial usage of the robots. One deterrent is cost: the company which makes the machines, Singapore-based ech Mechatronics, sells them for S,000 (US,340).迄今为止,只有少数几家餐馆在试用机器人。成本是一个障碍:总部位于新加坡的机器人制造公司ech Mechatronics对机器人的定价在4.7万新元(合3.434万美元)。The government provides a subsidy of nearly 70 per cent of the robot’s cost for the restaurant trial, the company said.该公司表示,新加坡政府为试用机器人的餐馆提供近70%的成本补贴。Also in Singapore, a research and development centre for MasterCard has designed the first payment application for SoftBank Robotics’ humanoid robot Pepper. 同样在新加坡,万事达(MasterCard)的一家研发中心为软银机器人(SoftBank Robotics)的仿人机器人Pepper设计了首个付应用。Outlets of Pizza Hut in Asia will use the robot to take some customer orders and process card payments in a trial expected to take place this year. The goal is to free waiters for more complex interactions with customers.亚洲的必胜客(Pizza Hut)门店将有望在今年试用Pepper接受一些顾客的订单并处理卡付。目标是让侍者解放出来,处理与顾客的更为复杂的互动。In this year’s budget, Singapore’s government announced plans to spend more than S0m over the next three years to back the deployment of robots, with a focus on providing affordable robotics to small and medium-sized enterprises.新加坡在今年的预算中宣布,计划在今后3年斥资逾4.5亿新元持企业配备机器人,重点是向中小企业提供它们负担得起的机器人。But the push to innovate has not been universally welcomed; in one Singapore restaurant piloting a robot dish-collector, the machine was smashed to pieces by a member of staff.但这种创新举措并未普遍受到欢迎;在新加坡一家试用机器人收拾盘子的餐馆里,一位员工将机器人打得粉身碎骨。While there has been a global boom in the use of industrial robots, with 248,000 units sold in 2015 according to research by the International Federation of Robotics, sales of service sector robots have lagged behind.尽管全球范围内已经在大量使用工业机器人——国际机器人联合会(International Federation of Robotics)的调查显示,2015年工业机器人销量为24.8万台——但务业机器人的销量要少得多。Sales of service robots rose to about 24,000 units in 2014 compared with just under 22,000 the year before.2014年,务业机器人的销量升至约2.4万台,而2013年还不到2.2万台。Analysts predict that the worldwide market for service industry robots is poised to take off, as technical advances allow robots to perform more complex tasks and work in more unpredictable environments.分析师预计,随着科技进步使得机器人能够执行更加复杂的任务并在更加不可预测的环境中工作,全球范围内务行业机器人的销量将会飙升。In Japan, where robots are widely used in manufacturing, the government has launched a push to increase their use in services including healthcare and nursing homes.在制造业广泛使用机器人的日本,政府出台措施,推动包括医疗保健和居家护理在内的务行业增加机器人的使用。 /201609/467906

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