原标题: 呼伦贝尔市第一人民妇幼中医院治疗不孕不育多少钱百姓互动
Beautifulpeople.com, an elite dating website for the exclusively good looking, has reportedly had the private data of more than 1 million users leaked. Beautifulpeople.com是仅对美貌人士开放的精英相亲交友网站,据报道,其一百多万用户的隐私数据遭到泄露。 The breach leaked information such as addresses, sexual preferences and incomes, as well as millions of private messages, sold online by the hackers. 这些被黑客窃取并泄露的隐私信息达数百万条,住址、性取向和收入等信息都被放到网上售卖。 Beautifulpeople.com claims to exclude unattractive people by having existing members rate those trying to sign up. Prospective members must pass a certain ratings threshold to be allowed on the website: millions have been denied access, the company says, while thousands of members have been removed for gaining weight after joining. Beautifulpeople.com网站称,现有会员会对注册人员的外貌进行评分,以筛掉那些魅力不够的人。想要成为会员,必须要达到一个特定的评分标准。该公司称,已有好几百万申请者被拒绝,而且好几千名会员因在注册后体重增加而被除名。 The site claims to be “the largest dating community of attractive people in the world” and to have spawned 700 marriages. 该网站说他们是“世界上最大的魅力人士相亲交友社区”,且已促成了700桩婚事。 It says several members have been “discovered” on the website and gone on to jobs in TV or modelling. In 2011, it claimed that a ;Shrek; virus had allowed thousands of unworthy people to join the website, although this was dismissed as a publicity stunt. Beautifulpeople.com还称,有几位会员在网站上被“发掘”,得到了电视台或模特行业的工作机会。2011年,该网站称遭到了 “怪物史莱克”病毒的袭击,数以千计不够资格的人加入了网站,后来这一说法被澄清是炒作。 Beautifulpeople.com was originally hacked in December, when the breach appeared to be confined to a database of test accounts. However, the data of real users is now being traded online, security expert Troy Hunt told Forbes. 安全专家特罗伊#8226;亨特对《福布斯》说,最初,Beautifulpeople.com网站在12月遭到了黑客袭击,但似乎只是侵入了测试账户的数据库。而现在真实用户的数据被放到网上售卖。 Dozens of different details are reportedly included in the leak, among them education, phone numbers and location data. 据报道,泄露的信息中包含各种各样的细节,比如教育信息、电话号码、地理位置等等。 More damaging, however, can simply be the existence of a profile on a dating website, especially for those who may not want their existence made public. Mr Hunt said that the email addresses in the leak included 170 ending in “.gov”, meaning US government employees used their work email addresses to sign up. 然而,更具破坏性的是会员在交友网站建档这一事实本身,特别是那些不想让别人知道自己在交友网站的人。亨特先生说泄露的邮箱地址中有170个以“.gov”结尾,说明有美国公务员用自己的工作邮箱地址注册了相亲网站。 There are also 170 .gov email addresses in the Beautiful People breach. I keep seeing a heap of gov stuff where it probably shouldn#39;t be... 在魅力人士网站的入侵资料中还有170个以.gov结尾的邮箱地址。我总是看见一堆堆政府人员的信息,或许这些信息不应该出现在这种地方…… — Troy Hunt (@troyhunt) April 25, 2016 ——特罗伊#8226;亨特(@troyhunt)2016年4月25日 Ashley Madison, a dating website exclusively for married people looking for affairs, was hacked last year, embarrassing thousands. 去年,专门为已婚人士寻找婚外情的交友网站“阿什利#8226;麦迪逊”遭黑客攻击,数千名用户陷入尴尬境地。 Beautifulpeople.com reiterated a statement from December about the hack being limited to a test server but has not commented on claims the leak was wider than that. Beautifulpeople.com网站重申去年12月的那个声明,称黑客只是攻击了测试务器,但对于此次更大范围的信息泄露,他们尚未作出回应。 /201604/439934

Going to Mars could be bad for astronauts’ brains, a new study using rodents has found.一项关于啮齿动物的实验发现,前往火星可能会对宇航员的大脑造成损害。While the Earth’s magnetosphere mostly protects people on this planet from cosmic radiation, any trailblazers on a long-distance trek to Mars would have to contend with the harmful radiation of space. To study this, researchers exposed rodents to charged particles and then analyzed the results. They found that, among other issues, the rodents had brain damage, neural inflammation, and impaired memory.尽管地球的大气层可以最大限度地遮挡住宇宙射线,但是宇航员在前往火星的漫长旅途中将不得不暴露在有害的辐射之下。研究者将老鼠放置在充电粒子周围,结果发现实验鼠出现了大脑受损、神经系统发炎和记忆受损等症状。;This is not positive news for astronauts deployed on a two-to-three-year round trip to Mars,; Charles Limoli, a professor of radiation oncology at the University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine, said in a statement. ;The space environment poses unique hazards to astronauts. Exposure to these particles can lead to a range of potential central nervous system complications that can occur during and persist long after actual space travel - such as various performance decrements, memory deficits, anxiety, depression and impaired decision-making.”“对于两三年内经常在地球和火星之间往返的宇航员来说,这可不是什么好消息,”加州大学欧文分校医学院的放射肿瘤学教授查理斯·利莫里表示“宇航员在太空中会受到特殊的伤害,如果长期暴露在粒子辐射下,神经系统可能会出现包括身体多项机能下降、记忆缺陷、焦虑、抑郁和决策能力受损在内的并发症,还会留下持续时间极长的后遗症。”The scientists also found that radiation could lead to more anxiety, as the rodents had their sense of “fear extinction” affected. Since fear extinction tamps down fear associated with past events, if that process isn’t working properly, then the astronauts could feel more fear.科学家们还发现,实验鼠因射线的作用变得越来越焦虑,受到了“恐惧消退”机能的影响。恐惧消退将人们过去的恐惧深埋心底,如果这一过程出现问题,宇航员会感受到更多的恐惧。;Deficits in fear extinction could make you prone to anxiety,; Limoli said in the statement, ;which could become problematic over the course of a three-year trip to and from Mars.;“恐惧消退出现缺陷,人们会更容易变得焦虑,”利莫里在声明中说到“这在地球与火星往返的三年时间里会成为一个大问题。”The red planet, about 140 million miles from Earth, is a prominent and tantalizing target for the future of space travel. NASA is looking at 2018 for the launch of its uncrewed Mars InSight mission, has plans for a next-gen Martian rover launching in 2020, and is eying a manned mission in the 2030s decade. Meanwhile, Elon Musk, the founder of SpaceX, has announced a bold vision to send people to Mars and colonize it.火星距地球约1.4亿英里,将成为未来太空旅行中地位显著的目的地。美国航空航天局计划于2018年执行无人探索任务,而2020年则将由探测车完成探测,而21世纪30年代将会有宇航员登上火星。同时美国太空探索技术公司创始人埃隆·马斯克曾宣布了大胆的火星殖民计划。The study, which notes that cosmic radiation could possibly impair astronauts’ decision-making abilities, was published in the journal Science Reports.这项研究发表在《Science Reports》期刊上,指出了宇宙射线对宇航员决策力造成的影响。A caveat: the study used rodents, not people (for obvious reasons), and in general in science, just because something happens to mice during a study doesn’t mean it will be the same for humans. Indeed, the study uses the word “possibly”to couch their results.这项研究的实验对象是鼠类而非人类(原因显而易见),而科学界普遍认为,在鼠类身上出现的现象不一定会同样在人类身上出现,研究报告也用了“可能地”这样的字眼。“The Mars mission will result in an inevitable exposure to cosmic radiation that has been shown to cause cognitive impairments in rodent models, and possibly in astronauts engaged in deep space travel,”the study states.研究报告指出:“老鼠在宇宙射线的作用下出现了认知障碍,而宇航员在火星的往返途中不免要接触到这些射线,因此在宇航员身上也很可能出现上述现象。” /201610/471788Ears are supposed to be self-cleaning. So what#39;s behind the fascination some people have to help nature along?耳朵被认为有自我清洁功能。那为什么有些人还喜欢多此一举?Some 12 million Americans visit medical professionals annually for earwax removal. Millions more have it done at spas and ear-candling parlors, which theoretically suck out earwax with a lighted candle. North Americans also spent million last year on home ear-cleaning products, from drops to irrigation kits, according to market research firm Euromonitor International.约1,200万美国人为了清除耳垢而每年看医生。还有上百万人在水疗院和耳烛美容院清除耳垢,后者理论上是借助点燃的蜡烛把耳垢吸出来。根据市场研究机构欧睿国际(Euromonitor International)的数据,去年,北美人还花了6,300万美元购买各类家用清除耳垢产品,从滴耳液到灌耳工具包,不一而足。On Internet health forums, people wax rhapsodic about the guilty pleasure of having their earwax removed -- though some wonder if it#39;s wrong to enjoy it so much.在网络健康论坛上,人们狂热地讨论着挖耳垢的罪恶快感──尽管有些人怀疑如此爱挖耳垢是否有问题。Others are unabashed. #39;I absolutely love to have my ears cleaned, #39; says Holly Kile, an online business manager from Indianapolis who says she uses cotton swabs daily and has her ears candled every couple of months, as does her 12-year-old son. #39;It#39;s generally a competition to see who has the grossest things come out, #39; she says.还有些人不以为然。印第安纳波利斯(Indianapolis)的网络商务经理霍利?凯尔(Holly Kile)说:“我很喜欢把耳朵掏干净。”她说,她每天用棉签掏耳朵,每隔几个月用耳烛吸一次耳垢,她12岁的儿子也是如此。她说:“我们通常会比赛,看谁掏出的耳垢最多。”Doctors strongly discourage using cotton swabs or ear candling to remove earwax and say that unless it#39;s causing bothersome symptoms, earwax should be left alone.医生们强烈反对用棉签或耳烛清除耳垢,并称除非耳垢导致不良症状,否则应该不要去管它。Officially known as cerumen, earwax is part of the ear#39;s own cleaning system, designed to stop incoming dust, dirt, bacteria -- even bugs -- in the ear canal and ferry them out again. The wax and trapped debris are propelled along by the movements of the jaw, at about the same speed that fingernails grow. When it reaches the ear opening, the wax usually dries, flakes and falls out, often without the human host noticing.耳垢的正式名称是耵聍,它是耳朵自我清洁系统的一部分,目的是阻止进入耳道的灰尘、污物、细菌──甚至是虫子──并把它们赶出去。耳垢和沉积的废屑被活动的下颚推动,它的增长速度和手指甲大致相同。当耳垢到达耳道口时,通常会变干、变薄并掉出来,且通常不会被人类注意到。The process isn#39;t always smooth. Having too much earwax, or wax that is too dry or too sticky, can create a buildup. Much of that is genetically determined. #39;When it comes to earwax, choose your parents well, #39; says Richard Rosenfeld, chair of otolaryngology at SUNY Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn.这个过程并非总是一帆风顺。耳垢太多、太干或太黏都会导致耳垢堆积。这主要是由基因决定的。位于布鲁克林(Brooklyn)的纽约州立大学下州医学中心(SUNY Downstate Medical Center)的耳鼻喉科主任理查德?罗森菲尔德(Richard Rosenfeld)说:“在耳垢这个问题上,要选好父母。”Wearing ear-bud headphones, hearing aids or ear plugs for long periods can also interfere with orderly extrusion.长期戴耳塞式耳机、助听器或耳塞都可能影响耳垢的规律性排出。When excess earwax hardens or gets pushed back down the canal, it can become impacted, which afflicts approximately 10% of children, 5% of healthy adults and up to 57% of older patients in nursing homes, according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck Surgery.当多余的耳垢变硬或被挤回耳道下方时,可能会导致耳塞。根据美国耳鼻喉-头颈外科学会(American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery)的数据,儿童的耳塞发病率约为10%,健康成人的耳塞发病率约为5%,而养老院中的老人耳塞发病率高达57%。Symptoms of earwax buildup include a feeling of fullness, itching, vertigo, pain, tinnitus (a persistent ringing in the ears) or coughing -- due to a nerve pathway that connects the ear with the diaphragm, explains Dr. Rosenfeld, who co-authored the American Academy of Otolaryngology#39;s 2008 guidelines for treating earwax.耳垢堆积的症状包括感到耳塞、耳痒、眩晕、耳疼、耳鸣(耳内持续鸣响)或咳嗽──美国耳鼻喉学会2008年耳垢治疗指南的作者之一罗森菲尔德士解释说,这与连接耳朵和隔膜的神经通路有关。Excess earwax is also the most common cause of partial hearing loss -- and the most treatable.耳垢过多也是部分听力丧失的最常见原因──也是最好治疗的。#39;Those are the happiest patients of my day. You clean out their ears and they say, #39;Oh my God, I can hear!#39;, #39; says Sarah Stackpole, an otolaryngologist (also known as an ear, nose and throat specialist) in New York City.纽约的耳鼻喉科医生萨拉?斯塔克波尔(Sarah Stackpole)说:“他们是我一天中见到的最高兴的病人。你为他们清除耳垢后,他们说:‘哦,天哪,我能听见了!’”Removing it at home is an option -- if you can do it safely.在家清除耳垢也是一种选择──如果你手法安全的话。That doesn#39;t mean poking cotton swabs, bobby pins or any other implement into the ear to retrieve it, doctors implore. Putting anything into the ear canal risks piercing the eardrum. In fact, attempts to dig earwax out generally pack it in further -- #39;like loading a Civil War cannon, #39; says Rod Moser, a physician assistant at Sutter Roseville Pediatrics, Roseville, Calif.医生劝告说,这并不是说可以用棉签捅、用发夹或其他工具伸进耳朵里挖。将任何东西伸入耳道都有令鼓膜穿孔的危险。实际上,越想把耳垢挖出来,通常越会把它捅得更深──加利福尼亚州罗斯维尔(Roseville)Sutter Roseville Pediatrics的医师助理罗德?莫泽(Rod Moser)说:“就像为加农炮装弹一样。”#39;Do not go mining for it, #39; adds Mr. Moser, who writes the Family Webicine blog for WebMD.为WebMD撰写“家庭网络医药”(Family Webicine)客专栏的莫泽说:“不要去挖它。”That edict also includes imaginative ear-cleaning implements such as bamboo ear spoons and miniature Samurai swords. (#39;When you#39;re going to war, you don#39;t take just any old weapon -- you take the baddest weapon you can find, #39; boasts the Katana/Sword Ear Pick Cleaner, sold for on Amazon.com.)专业人士的建议还包括不要用富有想象力的工具,包括竹挖耳勺和微型武士刀。(《武士刀耳挖勺》(Katana/Sword Ear Pick Cleaner)称:“当你打仗时,不要拿旧武器──否则就是选择了你能找到的最差的武器。”这本书在亚马逊网站(Amazon.com)上有售,价格为10美元。)Frequent cleaning can also strip the protective wax from the ear canal lining, leaving it exposed to moisture and vulnerable to the infection. #39;Some people -- and you know who you are -- are literally addicted to Q-Tipping their ears after every shower, #39; says Mr. Moser.经常挖耳垢可能会刮掉耳道内的保护性耳垢,导致耳道暴露在潮气中,容易感染。莫泽说:“有些人──你知道你属于哪种人──对每次淋浴后用棉签掏耳朵上了瘾。”Instead, doctors recommend softening impacted earwax with a few drops of mineral oil, baby oil, commercial ear drops or hydrogen peroxide. Then allow the loosened wax to work its way out naturally.医生建议的是用几滴矿物油、婴儿油、市面上有售的那些滴耳液或双氧水软化硬耳垢,然后让变软的耳垢自行掉出。If it still needs help, try gentle irrigation with a bulb syringe or tilt your head in the shower, say doctors. After a few minutes, straighten up and let the water run out again. #39;Water works just as well as a bottle of ear drops, #39; says Dr. Rosenfeld. But doctors say high-pressure water streams, including repurposed jet-tooth cleaners, can be damaging.医生们说,如果还不管用,就试着用洗耳球小心灌耳。或者在淋浴时歪着头,几分钟后,直起身让水再次流出来。罗森菲尔德士说:“水和10美元一瓶的滴耳液一样管用。”但医生们表示,高压水流,包括改造过的洗牙器,可能会造成伤害。Over-the-counter #39;ear vacs#39; are also generally ineffective. In a British study of 16 patients, published in Clinical Otolaryngology in 2005, none reported hearing better after using an ear vac. There was no improvement in visibility of the ear drum and in fact, no ear wax removed at all.一位母亲在清理儿子耳朵中的耳垢Another problem with do-it-yourself earwax removal: It#39;s hard to see what you#39;re doing, unless you pop for a pricey product like the Coden Ear Scope TV (0 to 0 on eBay), a lighted magnifying camera that relays images of your ear canal to a computer or TV screen.药店卖的“真空吸耳器”通常也没有效果。2005年英国一项针对16名病人进行的研究的论文发表在了《临床耳鼻喉科学》(Clinical Otolaryngology)上,这些病人中,没有人称使用真空吸耳器后听力有好转。鼓膜能见度也没有改善。实际上,耳垢根本没有被清除。Doctors are particularly scornful of ear candling. #39;I think it#39;s the work of the devil, #39; says Dr. Stackpole. The process uses a long, hollow cone-shaped candle. The patient lies down on one side, the bottom of the candle is placed in the ear and the other end is set ablaze, theoretically creating a vacuum inside that draws out the wax.自己挖耳垢还有一个问题:很难看到自己在做什么,除非你购买了像Coden Ear Scope TV(eBay上售价为150美元至300美元)这样昂贵的产品,它有一个发光的放大摄像头,可以将耳道中的图像传输到电脑或电视屏幕上。Many physicians -- and the Food and Drug Administration -- warn that it can drop hot wax into delicate ear tissues, cause burns or even set hair on fire. Doctors also say it doesn#39;t work -- that brown, gooey stuff inside the cone is candle wax, not earwax.医生们对耳烛尤其不屑一顾。斯塔克波尔士说:“我认为那是魔鬼干的勾当。”这种方法使用一根细长中空的锥形蜡烛。病人侧躺着,蜡烛底部放在耳朵上,并点燃另一端,这样理论上可以在内部产生真空,吸出耳垢。If softening drops and irrigation don#39;t work, it#39;s time to seek professional help -- from a nurse, physician#39;s assistant, primary-care physician or ear, nose and throat specialist. Many rely on drops and irrigation, but some also use small suction devices and a wired loop instrument called a curette. Some ENTs also have microscopes that attach to the wall and give them a 3-D view into the canal.许多医生──以及美国食品和药物(Food and Drug Administration)──警告说,这可能使热蜡滴入娇嫩的耳组织,导致灼伤,甚至点燃头发。医生们说,这种方法不管用──锥管内的棕色胶状物是烛蜡,而不是耳垢。Even trained specialists can get carried away when it comes to removing earwax, says Robert Folmer, an investigator at the National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research in Portland, Ore. He co-authored a 2004 survey in which 11 of 2, 400 patients at an Oregon hearing clinic said their tinnitus was caused by a professional earwax removal.如果软化滴耳液和灌耳不管用,那么是时候找专家帮忙了──可以是护士、医生助手、初级护理医生甚或耳鼻喉科专家。许多人依靠滴耳液和灌耳,但有些人也使用小吸管或被称作耳刮匙的铁圈形工具。有些耳鼻喉科专家还使用附在耳壁上的显微镜,好看到耳道中的3D图像。Other studies have found that eardrum perforation, infection and hearing loss occur at a rate of about 1 per 1, 000 irrigations. #39;Some doctors are really determined, but it isn#39;t like it#39;s a construction project, #39; Dr. Folmer says. #39;You#39;ve got to be gentle.#39; He suggests that patients ask a clinician what method they plan to use, and how many times they#39;ve done the procedure.使用耳刮匙让诊疗过程更像是“手术”,它有自己的诊疗标准,医疗费用可高达100美元。只用水冲洗不能保符合诊疗标准。许多药店的坐堂医生还提供60美元至80美元(根据方法而定)的清除耳垢务。Aside from earwax #39;overproducers, #39; who can benefit from a professional cleaning a few times a year, doctors say the average person should not require ear cleaning unless the wax is causing bothersome symptoms or impeding a doctors#39; ability to examine the eardrum. #39;I#39;d tell the doctor, #39;I really like my earwax. Leave it alone, please#39;, #39; says Dr. Rosenfeld.俄勒冈州波特兰(Portland)美国国家听力康复研究中心(National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research)的调研员罗伯特?福尔默(Robert Folmer)说,即使是训练有素的专家在清除耳垢时也可能会失手。他在2004年参与了一项调查,调查对象是俄勒冈州一家听力诊所的2,400名病人,其中11人称,他们的耳鸣是专家在清除耳垢时导致的。But some patients can#39;t. Dr. Stackpole says she gives earwax-removal addicts an antibiotic cream to dab at the opening of their ears once a day. #39;I do that rather than telling them to do nothing, because they are not capable of doing nothing, #39; she says.还有些研究发现,每1,000次灌耳中,大约会出现一次鼓膜穿孔、感染和听力丧失。福尔默士说:“有些医生很自信,但这不是盖房子。你必须手法轻柔。”他建议病人询问医生他们计划使用的方法,以及治疗将进行多少次。 /201509/396591A baby born in the west today will more likely than not live to be 105, write Lynda Gratton and Andrew Scott of London Business School in their crucial new book, The 100-Year Life. That may sound like science fiction. In fact, it’s only cautiously optimistic. It’s what will happen if life expectancy continues to rise by two to three years a decade, its rate of the past two centuries. Some scientific optimists project steeper rises to come.伦敦商学院(LBS)教授琳达#8226;格拉顿(Lynda Gratton)和安德鲁#8226;斯科特(Andrew Scott)在两人合著的的重要新书《百岁人生》(The 100-Year Life)中写道,如今在西方出生的婴儿,有超过一半概率会活到105岁。这听起来可能像科幻小说。事实上,这种设想只是谨慎乐观的估计。如果人类预期寿命保持过去200年来的增速,继续每十年增加两至三岁,这将成为现实。一些对科学感到乐观的人预计人类寿命增速还会加快。If turning 100 becomes normal, then the authors predict “a fundamental redesign of life”. This book shows what that might look like.如果活到100岁成为稀松平常之事,则这两位作者预言:“生活规划会出现根本性的改变”。该书展示了未来生活可能的样子。We currently live what Gratton and Scott call “the three-stage life”: education, career, then retirement. That will change. The book calculates that if today’s children want to retire on liveable pensions, they will need to work until about age 80. That would be a return to the past: in 1880, nearly half of 80-year-old Americans did some kind of work.我们目前的生活,用格拉顿和斯科特的话来说,是一种“三阶段生活”:教育阶段、职业生涯,然后是退休生活。这种模式将会改变。该书计算出,如果今天的孩子想在退休后拥有足够维持生活的退休金,他们需要工作到80岁左右。这相当于倒退回了过去:在1880年,80岁的美国人中将近一半人还在至少从事某种形式的工作。But few people will be able to bear the exhaustion and tedium of a 55-year career in a single sector. Anyway, technological changes would make their education obsolete long before they reached 80. The new life-path will therefore have more than three stages. Many people today are aly shuffling in that direction.但是,在一个行当里工作55年会把绝大多数人累趴下和无聊死。不过,反正技术变革也会让他们的教育在他们远未到80岁时便已经过时。因此,新的生活方式将不止3个阶段。如今很多人已经开始向那个方向慢慢前进了。Two new life-stages appeared in the past century: teenagers and retirees. Now another stage is emerging, say Gratton and Scott: the years from 18 to 30, which people increasingly spend transitioning from education to full-time work. Of course, many of today’s young have no choice: they simply cannot find good jobs. But the 18-to-30s have also been quickest to understand the gift of extra years, say the authors. Many young people are now consciously searching and experimenting, working out how they want to spend the next seven or so decades. They don’t want to let life just happen, as it tended to for previous generations. Today’s parents, who grew up expecting shorter lives, should stop grumbling that 18-to-30s won’t “commit”.过去一个世纪中,出现了两个新的人生阶段:青少年时期和退休生活。格拉顿和斯科特称,眼下即将出现另一个阶段:18岁至30岁,人们越来越多地利用这段时间来过渡,离开校园,开始全职工作。当然,如今的很多年轻人别无选择:他们根本找不到好工作。不过,两位作者称,在所有人群中,18岁至30岁的人也最快地理解了寿命增加带来的福音。现在很多年轻人正在有意识地去探索和尝试,试图弄清楚自己未来七八十年想要过什么样的生活。他们不想随遇而安——前辈人往往这样生活。现在的父母从小对寿命的预期更短,他们不应再抱怨18岁至30岁的人不愿“安定下来”。Aly the young are studying longer. The authors predict that more will do two degrees: first a general undergraduate course, which teaches thinking skills with lifelong value, and then a more specific vocational degree that teaches a specific sector’s current needs. After studying, the young will spend time travelling, exploring different sectors, and assembling a “posse” of friends and acquaintances who can sustain them at work and outside for 70 years. Instead of building old-fashioned CVs, people will build reputations on social media.现在的年轻人投入于学业的时间已经延长。两位作者预计将会有更多人完成两个学位:第一个是普遍的本科教育,教给他们能终身受用的思维能力;之后是更专业的职业学位,教授从事某个特定行当需要掌握的知识。在完成学业后,年轻人将去旅行、探索不同的行当、并建立起能够在工作和生活上受用70年的朋友和熟人圈。人们将在社交媒体上建立个人声誉,而不再设计老式的简历。Future careers will contain many transformations. Lives will have fourth, fifth, even sixth acts. People will have to make more choices: next year, should you work flat-out in your job, return to education to learn new skills, or transition to an entirely new sector? There will be time to achieve mastery in multiple domains. No longer will women be denied careers because they took five or 10 years out to raise kids. That will still leave them 50-plus working years. Older people, especially, will develop portfolio careers. The trick will be to keep finding work that robots cannot do.未来的职业将包含很多转变。生活将掀开第四、第五、甚至第六个篇章。人们将不得不做出更多选择:接下来的一年,你是应该全力以赴地工作、重返校园充电、还是跳槽到一个全新的行当?人们将有时间精通多个领域。女性将不再因为花了5至10年去抚育子女而无法重返职场。她们还有50多年可以工作。特别是老年人将发展出一整套职业。诀窍在于不断找到机器人无法胜任的工作。And people will change their use of leisure. When you could expect a 40-year career followed by fat state or corporate pensions, you could spend your free time chilling and buying stuff. But the 100-year life requires more saving. You might also need to spend much of your non-working time reskilling or exercising to maintain your body and brain for those extra decades. If that doesn’t come naturally, the authors have a tip: picture your 80-year-old self sitting by your side, tut-tutting each time you scarf a doughnut or book an expensive holiday.同时,人们将改变对空闲时间的利用方式。当你能预想到工作40年后,你可以从政府或企业领到丰厚的养老金,你就会把空闲时间用于放松和购物。但是百岁人生需要人们储蓄更多。你可能还需要花费很多的空闲时间去充电或者锻炼身体,以保养你的身体和大脑,为多活的那几十年做准备。如果你无法自觉自愿地这样做,作者有一个小窍门:想象一下80岁的你坐在你身边,每次你狂吃甜甜圈或者预订昂贵的度假行程时,80岁的你都会在旁边长吁短叹。Longer life can come as a shock, especially to those of us in midlife. We started work thinking we’d be done by about 60, and dead at 75. But now my generation can expect to retire at perhaps 75, and live to 90. The thought of having to do your current job for another 30 years can be daunting. In any case, many of us will be pushed out in our fifties. Some people (not me obviously!) may also need second or third marriages to take them through to 90.寿命延长可能会令人震惊,特别是对于人到中年的我们来说。我们参加工作时,以为自己会在60岁左右退休,在75岁左右离世。但是,如今我们这一代人可能预计会在75岁退休,活到90岁。想到目前的工作还要再做30年,可能会让人气馁。不过,反正我们中很多人五十多岁就会被淘汰了。某些人(显然不包括我!)可能还需要二婚甚至三婚才能撑自己活到90岁。In the 100-year life, age groups will mix much more than they do now. There will be more old people taking undergraduate degrees, or doing junior jobs as they descend rather than climb the corporate ladder. Many kids will grow close to their great-grandparents.在这种百岁人生中,不同年龄段的人会比现在合得来得多。未来将有更多老年人攻读本科学位,从事初级工作(不是在职业阶梯上一路攀升,而是重新回到底层)。很多孩子会与曾祖父辈变得亲近。Most of this is to the good. Crucially, most of the years of life gained in recent decades have been healthy ones. But the book warns that the 100-year life could become the preserve of the well-off. Aly the rich outlive the poor, and they will be better equipped to reskill and change careers. Poor people could face 60 years of dead-end jobs in the gig economy, followed by death at 80 without a pension. A life like that, say the authors, is “nasty, brutish and long”.多数改变都是好的。关键是,近数十年增加的寿命多数都是健康的寿命。但是,该书警告称,百岁人生可能会成为富人的专属。如今富人的寿命已然超过穷人,他们将更有条件去充电和改行。穷人可能会面临这样的前景:毫无前途的零散工作一做60年,没有退休金,在80岁离世。两位作者表示,这样的人生“痛苦、残酷又漫长”。 /201606/447148

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