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郴州韩式切割包皮手术郴州中医院看泌尿科怎么样Britain Sterling英国 英镑Weaker still and weaker屋漏偏逢连天雨The downgrade of British sovereign debt by Moody’s did not spook the markets. But investors were aly worried穆迪公司下调了英国主权债务评级,没有引起市场震荡,但却使投资者忧心忡忡“We will safeguard Britain’s credit rating with a credible plan to eliminate the bulk of the structural deficit over a parliament,” the 2010 Conservative manifesto. Well, so much for that. The decision by Moody’s, one of the three big rating agencies, to downgrade Britain from Aaa to Aa1 on February 22nd was a colossal embarrassment. Moody’s now ranks Britain’s credit lower than that of Luxembourgor the Isle of Man.2010年,保守党宣言称,“我们将通过议会出台一项减免大量结构性赤字的计划来捍卫英国的信誉评级。”但那也只是说说而已。2月22日,三大信誉评级机构之一的穆迪公司,决定把英国债务评级从Aaa下调至Aa1。这项决定让保守党十分尴尬。目前,穆迪公司将英国的信誉评级排在卢森堡和英国的属地曼岛之后。Will the downgrade harm the economy? In the past countries with lower credit ratings have had to pay higher borrowing costs. But neither America, which was downgraded in 2011, or France, which suffered a similar fate last year, have suffered much.这样的信誉评级的下降会对经济造成危害吗? 在过去的几个世纪里,一个拥有低信誉评级的国家只不过意味着他需要付更高的借贷成本。但不论是于2011年遭遇信誉降级的美国还是去年遭受同样命运的法国,却都蒙受了巨大的损失。It is hard to spot an immediate impact in Britain, either. Investors had expected the ratings agencies to act after last year’s autumn statement revealed that the government was struggling to reduce its deficit on schedule. The two other big ratings agencies—Fitch and Standard and Poor’s—both have Britain on “negative watch”.Sterling dropped to a 32-month low against the dollar and reached its weakest level against the euro since October 2011, but gilt yields actually fell.但是要立刻察觉出信誉评级的下调对英国经济产生的影响是很难的。在去年秋天的一份报告中指出英国政府正在按计划努力减少赤字后,投资者都盼望着信誉评级机构对英国会有所改观。但是另两家信誉评级机构惠誉和标准普尔都将英国评级下调至负面展望。英镑兑美元的汇率连续32个月走低,英镑兑欧元的汇率更是在2011年10月跌至历史最低点。国债的收益也有所下跌。Pull back a little, though, and the picture is more worrying. So far the pound is the weakest major currency of 2013. It has fallen even farther than the yen, where the decline had the explicit backing of the Japanese prime minister. In the past few weeks gilt yields have been rising relative to the cost of borrowing of the German government, too.但是,反观过去这段时间的走势,其形势更令人担忧。时下,英镑已算的上是2013年最疲软的货币之一。英镑比日元贬值的更多,但是日元的贬值状况已经得到日本首相详细规划以期有所改善。在过去的几周里,国债的收益有所提升,这与德国的借贷成本的下调不无关系。Several things are making investors wary of British assets. As Moody’s noted in justifying its downgrade, the performance of the economy has been poor; figures released on February 27th showed that GDP had shrunk by 0.3% in the fourth quarter of 2012 and is still 3% smaller than it was in the first quarter of 2008. Growth forecasts for the next few years were lowered in the autumn statement.一些事的存在不得不让投资者对英国资产的态度变得谨慎。就在穆迪声明实英国信誉降级之时,英国经济状况就已经不佳了。2月27日公布的数据显示,2012年第四季度中,英国的GDP缩水了0.3%,相比于2008年第一季度的GDP值还少3%。在去年秋天的一份报告中称,对于未来几年的经济走势并不看好。A fall in the pound makes Britain’s goods cheaper for foreign buyers—a welcome tonic for exporters at a time when the current-account deficit is running at 3.5% of GDP. But sterling’s big decline in 2008 and did not cut the trade deficit. The downside of a weaker pound is that the price of imported goods, such as oil, will increase, further squeezing consumer spending. “It’s not just that our gilt outlook is weak; it’s not just that we’ve lost our triple-A credit rating; it’s that we’re really addicted to imported goods” says Jim Leaviss of M and G, a fund-management group. “A current-account deficit this large has historically preceded a sterling crisis.”英镑贬值对于外国买家来说是件好事,因为商品的价格更加便宜。而一向受欢迎,创造喜人收益的出口商,此时往来账户的赤字却占据GDP的3.5%。但是2008年和年的英镑贬值并未减少贸易赤字。疲软的英镑造成了一种下降的趋势,这种趋势使得类似石油这样的进口商品的价格增加,并使消费者的手头更加拮据。“之所以造成这样状况,不是因为我们国债的前景一片灰暗的,也不是因为我们已经失去了3A的信誉评级,而是因为我们的确是习惯于进口商品”,一位来自MG投资管理公司的吉姆·里维斯(Jim Leaviss)说道,“如此之大的贸易逆差使得它历史性的领跑了这场英镑危机。”Higher import prices are also likely to ensure that the Bank of England continues to overshoot its 2% inflation target, as it has for the last 38 months. Indeed, the bank recently predicted inflation would stay above the target for the next two years. Despite this, three members of the nine-strong monetary-policy committee—including the governor, Sir Mervyn King—recently voted for more quantitative easing.更高的进口价格也极可能把英格兰继续送上超出它所定的2%通货膨胀的目标的不归路上,因为这已经持续38个月。事实上,英格兰最近也预测到,在接下的两年里,这样的通货膨胀都将会超出预定目标。尽管有此预测,但在九强货币政策委员会中,包括英国央行行长默文·金恩(Mervyn King)在内的三名成员在,最近都投票持实行更大规模的量化宽松政策。With ten-year gilts yielding just 2%, domestic investors seem likely to lose money in real terms. Foreign investors might not be too keen to buy such a low-yielding asset in a depreciating currency. If Britain’s borrowing costs rise sharply, the government’s deficit-cutting task will be made even harder. However, this yield rise could be offset if the Bank buys more gilts in a further extension of QE.10年期的国债收益仅为2%,实际上,国内投资国债的人极有可能在赔钱。在货币贬值的情况下,外国投资者可能不太会热衷于购买这样的低收益资产。假如英国的借贷成本激增,政府想要完成减赤的计划就会更加困难。但是,假如英格兰在更大规模的量化宽松政策中,购买更多的国债,所增加的收益又会被抵消。The good news is that the foreign exchange and government bond markets are an ugly contest these days, in which few options look attractive. The indecisive Italian election result reawakened investor fears about the stability of the euro zone, and may make gilts appear relatively safe, as was the case in 2011 and 2012. Both Japan and America could loosen their monetary policy further, an approach that may put pressure on their currencies. Britain is not the only country with problems.这些天,外汇和政府债券市场进行了一场胶着的竞争,但双方都并未成为投资者看好的投资对象,这算的是一个好消息。但悬而未决的意大利大选却再度唤起投资者对欧元区经济稳定的担忧。但这样的状况对国债而言,还是相对安全的,这样的结论在2011年和2012年都得到了印。日本和美国都可能会进一步放宽他们的货币政策,并以此来作为对货币进行施压的一种方法。由此可见,英国并不是被麻烦缠身的唯一一个,他并不孤单。翻译:沈晓旭译文属译生译世 /201610/471396郴州正规医院有哪些 French economic policy法国经济政策Which way for Mr Hollande?奥朗德何去何从?Elected on the left,France’s president seems to be veering towards the centre左翼当选,而今法国总统似向中间摇摆THE longer Francois Hollande spends in office, the more it takes sharp eyesight and a clear head to follow his economic policy. Since his election last May, the Socialist president has mixed tax-and-spend measures with efforts to improve competitiveness. The rich feel squeezed; firms are annoyed by anti-business talk. Yet,with GDP shrinking in the fourth quarter of 2012 and job losses mounting, the man elected on a leftist programme is accused of a swerve to the reformist centre. What is Mr Hollande up to?奥朗德任职时间越长,他的经济政策就越发扑朔迷离。自从去年五月当选以来,这位社会党主席就一直采用量入为出的手段并辅以促进竞争的不懈努力。富人感到备受压迫;反商业会谈让公司恼怒不堪。然而,随着2012年第四季度GDP的缩水以及失业人数的增加,人们质疑这位因左派纲领当选的人向改革的中间方向摇摆。奥朗德先生该何去何从?In his first few months he ticked off items on his manifesto. He lowered the pension age for certain workers. He raised a family benefit. He capped petrol prices. He vowed to stop companies closing factories. He prepared a budget for 2013 that tried to keep the budget deficit to 3% of GDP, but chiefly through tax increases: it soaked the rich with a 75% income-tax rate, and hit companies and individuals with other higher taxes. Returning from his summer break, Mr Hollande seemed like a man with the luxury of time on his side.在上任之初的几个月内,他兑现了之前宣言上的条目。他降低了一些工人领养老金的年龄。他增加了家庭收入。他设置了油价上限。他誓言会阻止公司关闭工厂。他计划将2013年的预算赤字降低到GDP的3%,但主要的手段是增加税收:75%的所得税压得富人喘不过气,而公司和个人也遭遇其他苛税。结束了夏季休假的奥朗德有充裕的时间大展宏图。What followed in October was, therefore, sprung on an unsuspecting public. After a damning report on French competitiveness by Louis Gallois, a left-leaning industrialist, Mr Hollande announced 20 billion euros of tax breaks for companies employing low-wage labour, to compensate for high social charges. A sense of urgency and realism began to creep in. Mr Gallois talked of an “emergency situation”. For the first time, the government acknowledged labour cost as a factor behindFrance’s loss of competitiveness to Germany over the past ten years. Mr Hollande even started talking of cutting public spending, which accounts for over 56% of GDP. This was followed in January by an unexpected agreement with the unions to soften labour-market rules, making it easier for companies to reduce hours and wages in a downturn.是以,在十月份接踵而至的事,让不知情的群众为之一震。在路易斯加洛伊斯,一位左倾实业家,发表了一份报告谴责法国的竞争力,此后,奥朗德宣布给予雇佣低薪劳动力的公司200亿欧元的税收减免以补偿高额的社会负担费用。紧迫感与现实主义暗潮汹涌。加洛伊斯认为“事态紧急”。政府前所未有地承认劳动力成本是导致过去十年间法国竞争力逊于德国的一个因素。奥朗德甚至开始考虑削减公众开,而这占到了GDP的56%以上。紧接着的一月,法国出人意料地和工会达成了宽松劳动市场规则的协定,让公司能更轻松地减少工作时间和工资。In some ways, all this was just an inevitable encounter with economic reality. Mr Hollande had based his manifes to on growth in 2013 of 1.7%; in office, he revised this to 0.8%. Now the fantasy is over: this week Mr Hollande conceded, like most economists, that growth would be much lower. As a result, said the Cour des Comptes, the national auditor, in its annual report on February 12th, France has “little chance” of meeting its 3% target.在某种程度上,这一切只是无可避免地撞上了经济现状的高墙而已。奥朗德的竞选纲领建立在2013年经济增长1.7%的目标上;任职后,他把这个数字修正为0.8%。现在,美梦破碎,本周奥朗德一如众多经济学家般承认,增长率会低得多。而最后的结果,就像国家审计员Cour des Comptes在2月12日的年报中所说的那样,法国实现3%赤字目标的可能性“微乎其微”。Across the country, factories have been closing. Industrial production has stalled. Entrepreneurs feel penalised. Investment plans are on hold. Anecdotes abound of rich families leaving the country. Faced with this, and with poor poll ratings, Mr Hollande has begun to recognise the limits of state power, and of a tax-and-spend policy in a country that breaks records for both. Now Jean-Marc Ayrault, his prime minister, wants “to reinvent the French model”. Pierre Moscovici, the finance minister, even claims there has been a “Copernican revolution” on the left. By conceding the need for supply-side measures to reduce labour costs, he says, the French left has made a big shift. Indeed. Some say that those around Mr Hollande in charge of economic policy, including Mr Moscovici, Michel Sapin, the labour minister, and Emmanuel Macron, the economic adviser in the Elysee, have long understood what is really needed to solve France’s competitiveness problem.纵观全国,工厂纷纷关闭。工业生产陷入泥潭。企业家感觉受到严惩。投资计划搁置了。人们耳边充斥着富裕家庭离开国家的消息。面对这一切窘境还有消极的民调,奥朗德开始意识到政权以及量入为出政策的局限性。现在,总理让-马克·艾罗想要“重塑法兰西模式”。财政大臣皮耶尔 莫斯科维奇 甚至宣称左翼已经历“哥白尼式的变革”。他表示,通过满足供应方降低劳动力成本的需求,法国左翼已经完成巨大的转变。一些人认为在奥朗德身边掌控经济政策的人士,包括莫斯科维奇,劳务大臣米歇尔萨宾以及Elysee的经济顾问艾米努尔马克伦早已洞悉解决法国竞争力顽疾的良药。The trouble is that the rest of the Socialist Party, particularly in parliament, does not agree. Manuel Valls, the popular straight-talking interior minister, says that “The challenge for the French left is that we should have done this ideological metamorphosis during the past ten years of opposition.” Instead, “We are adapting our software while in office.” With its deputies supplied largely by the public sector, this is awkward. Aly, the left accuses Mr Hollande of giving in to “neo-liberal principles”. Thierry Lepaon, the new leader of the Confederation Generale du Travail, France’s biggest and communist-linked union, complains that he is doing “the opposite of his campaign commitments”.问题是社会党的剩余部众,尤其是在国会的那些人,并不同意。以直言著称的内务大臣马努尔 沃尔斯表示“对法国左翼而言,挑战是,我们应该在过去在野的十年内完成这种意识形态的变革”,但事实上,“我们上台之后仍在调整适应。”它的代表人主要是由公共部门提供产生的,这确实很尴尬。的左派已经控诉奥朗德向“新自由主义原则”让步。法国最大的共产主义工会,法国总工会的新领袖西里 莱帕昂抱怨道,奥朗德正和他的“竞选承诺背道而驰”。In reality, it is hard to detect a linear evolution, let alone a revolution. For one thing, Mr Hollande is a political animal who plays by the rule that it is better not to say too clearly what you are doing. He refuses to acknowledge a U-turn. He let Arnaud Montebourg, his industry minister, talk of the compulsory nationalisation of a steelworks, before ruling it out. He has pinned himself into a corner over the 75% tax rate, which was ruled unconstitutional in December, but which he cannot entirely bury without losing face.事实上,线性的演变都很难观测到,更不用说是一场巨大变革。一方面,奥朗德是一个政治动物,他不会把自己的底牌摊出来。他拒绝承认经济的U形复苏。他让工业首相Arnaud Montebourg谈道强制钢铁制品的国有化,紧接着又否决了这种可能性。他用75%的税率把自己逼入困境,而这一税率在十二月被判为违反宪法,而他也不能自圆其说,不失颜面地平息事态。It is also far from clear that Mr Hollande, even if he sees the need to curb public spending, is y to do it. In its damning report, the Cour des Comptes deplores the fact that tax rises make up three-quarters of 2013 budget savings, and urges a greater effort to cut spending. But this will require an overhaul of pensions and welfare spending, as well as civil-service staffing, none of which is on the table.而且,即使奥朗德看出有必要控制公共出,也很难说他已经做好准备。在谴责报告中,Cour des Comptes 强烈反对税收增长占到2013年预算储蓄的四分之三,并督促投入更大努力削减开。但这意味着在养老金,福利出以及公务员职务等方面会有大幅调整,而这样的调整并不在议程上。Mr Hollande could yet turn out to be a Gerhard Schruder a la francaise, willing to bring in deep reforms, as the former centre-left German chancellor did, to shake up the French welfare state and restore competitiveness. But a more likely outcome is that he will do just enough to keep the markets and the ratings agencies at bay, without ever fully confronting vested interests. “Whenever he can avoid hard choices, he will,” says somebody who knows him well. This may keep France from disaster. Whether it will reverse the slow decline of the past decade is far less certain.奥朗德可以成为法国的杰哈德施罗德,正如这位德国前总理所做的一样,他锐意进取,深化改革,改造社会福利,重塑国家竞争力。但另一种呼之欲出的结果是,他让市场与评级机构陷入泥潭,却没有和既得利益集团交锋。熟知他的人说,“他会尽其所能,避免”这也许能让法国免遭灭顶之灾。它是否能扭转过去十年间的缓慢滑坡尚不得而知。 翻译:袁航译文属译生译世 /201610/469165Demography人口统计学The strange case of the missing baby婴儿的离奇流失As the financial crisis hit, birth rates fell in rich countries, as expected. But a persistent baby bust is a real puzzle正如人们所预料那样,金融危机的冲击导致发达国家的出生率下降。但持久的生育低谷才是一个真实的谜团。HE IS not exactly leading by example, but Pope Francis wants more babies. “The great challenge of Europe is to return to being mother Europe,” he said last year, while suggesting that young people might be having too few children because they preferred holidays. Europe certainly lacks young souls, particularly in Catholic countries such as Italy and Spain. But the baby shortage is broader: mother America and mother Australia have gone missing, too.他自己并非以身作则,但教宗方济各想要有更多的婴儿出生。他在去年说道,“欧洲所面临的重大挑战就是,恢复作为一名欧洲母亲的身份,”同时也暗示,年轻人也许不喜欢多生几个孩子,因为他们更喜欢假期。确实,欧洲缺乏年轻人,尤其是在意大利和西班牙这样的天主教国家。但婴儿短缺的范围更为广泛:美国母亲和澳大利亚母亲也越来越少了。They were certainly present a decade ago. Although birth rates were low in the former communist countries of eastern Europe, and in traditionalist places where it is hard to combine work with motherhood—think Japan, South Korea and southern Europe—many countries were having a baby boom. In the decade to 2008, the total fertility rate (the number of children a woman can expect to have in her lifetime based on present patterns) rose in much of the rich world. In Britain it went up from 1.68 to 1.91; in Australia from 1.76 to 2.02; and in Sweden from 1.5 to 1.91. America even managed to reach the “replacement rate” of 2.1, meaning its population was sustaining itself, without taking migration into account.在十年前,他们是确实存在着的。尽管在东欧的前社会主义国家,以及难以将工作与母亲身份结合的传统之地中,如日本、韩国和欧洲南部地区,出生率低下—但许多国家都经历过婴儿潮时期。到2008年为止的十年间,大部分发达国家的生育率均上升了(生育率是指在既有模式下,一位女性希望在其一生中生育的孩子的数量)。在英国,生育率从1.68上升至1.91;在澳大利亚,生育率从1.76上升至2.02;在瑞典,该指标从1.5上升至1.91。美国甚至达到2.1的“人口置换率”,这意味着,在不考虑移民的情况下,该国人口基本保持不变。There were two reasons, says Tomas Sobotka of the Vienna Institute of Demography. First, women who had delayed having children while they studied and started careers hurried to the maternity wards while they still could. Births to women in their 30s, which had been rising gently for years, went up further in Norway and elsewhere. Second, fertility among women in their 20s stopped falling.维也纳人口统计学研究所的托马斯·索特卡表示,导致这种现象的原因有两个。首先,那些因为学习或者事业刚起步而延迟怀的女性都趁自己身体状况允许的条件下着急生育。这些年来,30几岁才生育的女性数量一直在缓慢增加,在挪威以及别的地方增长得更快。其次,20几岁生育的女性数量也逐渐减少。The financial crisis abruptly turned the boom to bust. Countries in the European Union delivered 5,469,000 babies in 2008 but only 5,075,000 in 2013—a drop of over 7%. That was too much for Kimberly-Clark, the maker of Huggies nappies, which announced in 2012 that it would pull out of most of Europe. In America the fertility rate fell from a peak of 2.12 in 2007 to 1.86 in 2014. Ken Johnson, a demographer at the University of New Hampshire, estimated that America was missing 2.3m babies.金融危机突然地将婴儿潮转变为生育低谷。在2008年,欧盟国家共有5,469,000名婴儿出生,而在2013年,仅有5,075,000名——下跌超过7%。这对于好奇纸尿布的制造商金佰利克拉克而言,实在是太多了。金佰利在2012年宣布将退出大部分欧洲市场。在美国,生育率从2007年的顶点值2.12跌至2014年的1.86。新罕布尔什大学的人口学家肯·约翰逊估计,美国已流失230万婴儿。The crunch was unsurprising: anxiety about jobs and money puts people off children. But a rich-world baby bust that began predictably turned into a puzzle.这一窘境在人们意料之中:对工作和金钱的担忧使得人们推迟要孩子的计划。但原本可预计的生育低谷发生在发达国家却变成了一个谜。 译文属译生译世 /201605/444566郴州中医男科医院治疗性功能障碍多少钱

郴州哪家医院治疗肾虚最权威Do you think theres life on other planets Don?你认为其他行星上会有生命存在吗?It seems perfectly reasonable that there would be Yael.似乎完全有理由相信有生命存在。what with how unfathomably largethe universe is.Dont you think?宇宙如此之大,深不可测,不是吗?I do.But then again, life is a tricky thing.的确如此。但是话又说回来,生命的存在是一件极其有难度的事。So much has to fall into place for the conditions for life aswe know it to be possible.据我们所知,生命存在的可能性需要满足众多适合生存的条件。For instance, a planet has to be just the right distance from the star itrevolves around.比如说,行星与其所围绕旋转的恒星之间的距离是否适当。How is that?这有什么关系?If its too close to its star, the heat from the star would cause any water on the planet to boil away.如果太近,来自恒星的热量会导致行星上水分蒸发,If its too far away, the opposite problem occurs:the cold temperature would cause water to freeze.与之相反,要是距离太远,温度太低会致使水冻结。The range of distance from a star that will allow water to remain a liquid is called the habitable zone.与恒星之间的距离要能保持水呈现的是液体状态,这个范围被称作适居带。So we Earthlings are lucky I guess that we are just the right distance away from the sun.那我们地球岂不是很幸运,与太阳之间的距离正当适宜。Very lucky it seems.是非常的幸运。In 2007, scientists discovered the first two Earth-like planets outside our solarsystem that appear to be located near or within their stars habitable zone.2007年,科学家们在太阳系以外首次发现两颗类似地球,可能位于适居带附近的行星,Previously discovered planets have had masses more akin to Jupiters.而之前发现的行星更类似于木星。The planets orbit the same star andare known as Gliese 581c and Gliese 581d.这两颗行星都围绕格利泽581恒星转动,因此他们被称作格利泽581d和格利泽581c。Wow,so there is other life out there?哇!那探索到有生命存在吗?Not so fast, upon further investigation, it seems that Gliese 581d may be the only one of the two actually in the habitable zone, and its orbit seems to take it in and out of the zone. 没那么快。据进一步调查研究发现,格利泽581d可能是二者中在适居区以内的行星,而且其运行轨道使其在适居区内游离。Not tomention as I said, a lot of factors must come into play for life to exist.更何况正如我所说的,生命存在还有诸多因素要考虑,Being within the habitable zone is just one of them.在适居区只是其中之一。201410/337084郴州第三人民医院泌尿外科 郴州哪里能做阴茎矫正手术

郴州包茎治疗价格Some cities in China are deploying cannons — mist cannons to fight off growing air pollution problems in the nation. 中国一些城市正在部署雾炮应对日益严重的空气污染问题。The smog-filled air of many Chinese cities have long since passed the “good” and “moderate” ranges, which top out at 50 and 100, respectively. 许多中国城市烟雾弥漫,早就超过了“好”和“中度”的范围,分别达到最高的50和100。The machines work by nebulizing water into small particles and spraying it into the air.该机器通过将水雾化成细小颗粒,喷射到空气中。The water sticks to the particles and pulls them out of the air. 水吸附颗粒,将其从空气中分离开来。This technology is used to keep coal dust and other industrial particulates from getting into workers’ lungs, but it works equally well on smog.这项技术是用来防止煤炭粉尘和其他工业微粒进入工人的肺部,但对烟雾也有良好的效果。译文属。201512/417942 Care insurance护理保险Forever young前景光明Nobody wants to insure themselves against the cost of end-of-life care没有人能保他们不需要生命终期护理GOOD news for cruise ships: the ranks of the over-65s grew by 1.4m over the past decade. But old age will not be kind to all of them. One in three will develop dementia, around one in six will end up in a nursing or care home and nearly half will need some form of care. Few will have laid plans to pay for it.游轮迎来好消息啦:过去十年间65岁以上人群增加了140万人次。但如此高龄的年纪却并不会善待每一位老人。其中有1/3的人会患老年痴呆,1/6的老人会在护理之家或是在护理中心走完人生的最后一程,而且有近一半的老人需要各种形式的护理。但几乎没人会为护理制定付计划。The average stay in a nursing home lasts 17 months and costs 57,000 (85,000) according to the Centre for Economics and Business Research, a think-tank. People with assets under 23,250 get most of their residential care paid for but everyone else is more-or-less on their own, with the unluckiest facing bills as high as 200,000. Ever-attuned to the plight of elderly voters, the government is moving to change that. Next year it will put a cap of 72,000 on the sum that a person will have to pay towards care, and will raise the means-testing threshold from 23,250 to 118,000.据一智囊团——英国经济和商业研究中心称,在护理之家平均停留时间长达17个月,花费达57000欧元(合85000美金)。当不幸的面对高达20万欧元的护理费用之时,资产总值不足23250欧元的人会免付家庭护理,但其他人或多或少都要自己付了。曾面对过老龄选民的费用困境,所以政府正在努力做改变。明年,政府将出台一项政策,没人必须付的护理费用总值最高为72000欧元,并且会将资产评估的阀值从23250欧元提升至118000欧元。The government had hoped that this reform would not just soothe elderly nerves but also stimulate an insurance market for end-of-life care. Unfortunately, that is not happening.政府希望此项改革能够舒缓老年人的神经并且以生命终期护理来刺激保险市场。可惜,现实太过骨感。Many people continue to assume, wrongly, that the NHS will pay, says Yvonne Braun from the Association of British Insurers. And most are overly optimistic about their health in old age, underestimating the risks and costs they will suffer. Joan Costa-Font, from the London School of Economics, adds that the idea of care insurance seems to conflict with social values. A kind of familial moral hazard kicks in, as people fear their children will no longer look after them if they are insured.来自英国保险协会的伊冯布劳恩表示,与政府期望恰恰相反,有很多人仍在持续为本应NHS(英国国民健康保险制度)承担的费用来买单。而且很大一部分人低估了他们将会承担的风险和费用,所以他们对自己晚年健康表现的过度乐观。来自伦敦经济学院的 Joan Costa-Font补充道,护理保险这一说法似乎与社会价值观存在冲突。随着很多人担忧若是他们投保之后他们的子女会将自己弃之不顾,一种类似家庭性的道德危机开始蔓延。Care costs are so hard to predict that insurers tend to protect themselves with big premiums, making insurance unaffordable. The governments new cap, which was supposed to sort this out, comes with alarming caveats. It does not include the cost of bed and board, which makes up a large chunk of care home costs. It is also up to local authorities to determine which care counts towards the cap, meaning people may end up spending more after all. And the cap is higher than the 25,000-50,000 recommended to the government by Andrew Dilnot, an economist who reviewed the market.护理费用的难以预测,也使得保险公司采取抬高保险费用来保护自己,而这些费用总是昂贵的难以承受。政府最新出台的带有强烈警示意味条例的上限要求,目的就是解决这一问题。保险费用并不包括食宿花费,而这正是护理中心花费的一大部分。同样,地方当局决定那一项会触及政府的上限,这意味着人们终将结束过度付的境况。一位名为安德鲁迪尔洛特的经济学家,在重新审视过市场之后,向政府建议,上限要求高于25000欧元-50000欧元。According to the Institute and Faculty of Actuaries, the real maximum of self-funded costs might be around 140,000. “Like the rest of the industry, we couldnt make it pay,” says Stephen Lowe from Age UK, a charity that also sells insurance.据英国精算师协会表示,真实的自费费用最大值应该是在140000欧元左右。来自老年英国——英国老年人慈善机构—的史蒂芬洛表示,“像其他老年人福利一样,我们本不用为此买单。”If a care insurance market fails to materialise, alternatives will be available. Worried middle-aged folk might take out immediate-needs annuities, which give fixed care payouts for life in return for a lump sum. Some insurers are starting to offer a care element as part of their life-insurance policies. Zurich Insurance, one of Britains largest insurers, looked into offering care-only insurance but found that people much prefer a guaranteed payout over the “risk” of not needing care and losing their premiums altogether. From next month it will offer a new policy that allows people to withdraw a portion of their life insurance, which normally only pays out at death, as soon as they need care.若是一个护理保险市场无法成功立足,那么就会有其他的可供选择。令人担忧这些中年人很可能会拿出他们眼前急需的养老金,而这笔养老金的一大部分是要为他们一生中固定的保健出来买单的。部分保险公司开始在他们的人寿保险政策中开辟出护理的部分。全英最大的保险公司之一的苏黎世保险公司,曾致力于提供专门的护理保险,但其随后发现,人们更倾向于无须护理保险和丢失保险金的“风险”保费用。自下月起,该保险公司会运行新政策,一旦人们需要护理,允许他们撤回其人寿保险的一部分,这一部分通常是为死亡付的费用。From next month much will change for retirees, as the government drops the requirement to buy annuities with private pension pots. The government hopes that people will use the new flexibility to plan for their old age, including the possibility that their final years will be spent in a nursing home rather than on the Costa del Sol. But Richard Sadler from Zurich points out that most people do not even save enough for retirement—something they are fairly certain will happen and even look forward to. It is less likely they will save for long-term care, which they think and hope they will never need.从下月开始,随着政府降低对私人养老金年金的购买要求,针对退休人员的很多政策会有所变化。政府希望人们利用新政策的灵活性来为自己晚年做出计划,包括在他们晚年可能要给一家护理中心付费而不是为西班牙的阳光海岸买单。但是来自苏黎世保险公司的理查德萨德勒却指出,有很多人甚至并未为退休攒足资金——只应付得了他们完全预料甚至期待的事情。对于那些他们认为并希望永不需要的长期护理费用来说,他们所能积攒的远远不够。译者:张娣 校对:石海霞 译文属译生译世 /201503/365474湖南省郴州有治疗前列腺炎吗郴州割掉包皮要多少钱

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