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National High-Tech Ramp;D Program,(863 Program)《高技术研究发展计划(863计划)纲要》Since the 1980s new tides of technical development have produced a huge influence on the human beings and evoked a profound revolution in economy, society, culture, politics, military, etc. at the whole world. In 1983 the ed States put forward the Strategic Defense Initiative (i. e. the Star Wars Initiative), then came the EURICA of Europe, the Comprehensive Outline of Science and Technology Progress in Year 2000 0f the member countries of the Council of Mutual Economic Assistance ( CMEA) at that time, the Policies for the Promotion of Science and Technology in the Next Ten Years of Japan, etc. , which are all strategic plans aimed at the 21st century.1980年代以来,科学技术迅速发展,对人类产生了巨大的影响,引起了经济、社会、文化、政治、军事等各方面深刻的变革。1983年3月美国提出“星球大战”计划,欧洲的尤里卡计划、日本的“今后10年科学技术振兴政策”等着眼于21世纪的战略计划也先后应运而生。In March 1986, in view of the impacts of competition in the fields of high technologies in the world on China, four scientists, Wang Daheng, Wang Ganchang, Yang Jiachi and Chen Fanyun, submitted a letter to the central government to suggest that China adopt appropriate countermeasures to trace the development of high technologies in the world. This letter received great attention of Mr. Deng Xiaoping, who gave the written instruction “Quick decision should be made on this matter without any delay”. In the following half year, the Program for Hi-Tech Research and Development ( called Program 863 for short) was issued after extensive and in-depth study by hundreds of Chinese scientists. Since then the development of research on high technologies has entered a new stage in China. Because the letter of the scientists and the written instructions were both put forward in March 1986, hence came the name of “863” for the magnificent program.1986年3月,王大珩、王淦昌、杨嘉墀、陈芳允四位老科学家联合向中央政府写了一封信,题为《关于跟踪世界战略性高科技发展的建议》,信中恳切地建议中国采取措施跟踪世界高科技发展,发展我国高技术的建议。这封信得到了邓小平同志的高度重视,小平同志亲自批示:“这个建议十分重要”,“找些专家和有关负责同志讨论,提出意见,以凭决策,此事宜速作决断,不可拖延。”在随后的半年中,经过广泛、全面和极为严格的科学和技术论后,中共中央、国务院批准了《高技术研究发展计划(863计划)纲要》。从此,中国的高技术研究发展进入了一个新阶段。由于计划的提出与邓小平同志的批示都是在1986年3月进行的,因此此计划被称为“863”。 /201602/426259The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has fined Honda Motor million for failing to submit reports of fatal accidents and injuries to the government.因未就造成人员伤亡的事故向政府提交报告,本田汽车(Honda Motor)被美国国家公路交通安全局(National Highway Traffic Safety Administration)处以7000万美元(约合4.4亿元人民币)的罚款。It is the largest amount that the safety regulator has ever levied against an automaker. The penalty stems from the automaker’s failure to report 1,729 death and injury claims to the agency for the last 11 years, and its failure to report certain warranty and other claims in the same period.这是该安全监管机构对汽车生产商开出的最高罚单。本田受罚是因为在过去11年里,它未向该机构汇报1729起伤亡索赔,且在同一时期,该公司未汇报某些保修及其他一些索赔。“Today’s announcement sends a very clear message to the entire industry that manufacturers have responsibility for the complete and timely reporting of this critical safety information,” Mark Rosekind, the new head of the agency, said on Thursday.“今天的通告向整个行业传达了一个非常明确的讯息,那就是厂商有责任全面、及时地汇报这类关键的安全信息,”国家公路交通安全局新任局长马克·罗斯金德(Mark Rosekind)周四说。Under a system called Early Warning Reporting, automakers are required to disclose claims they receive that blame vehicle defects for serious injuries or deaths.根据尽早预警汇报(Early Warning Reporting)制度的要求,车企应在收到称车辆缺陷造成了重伤或死亡的索赔后,将其公开。Honda publicly disclosed in November that it had grossly underreported the number of deaths and injury claims linked to possible defects in its vehicles for more than a decade. An audit, commissioned by Honda, found that the Japanese automaker had not reported 1,729 written claims or notices on injuries or deaths from mid-2003 through mid-2014 — far more than the approximately 900 reports for that period that it did make.本田于去年11月透露,在超过十年的时间里,公司大幅漏报了与车辆可能存在的缺陷有关的伤亡索赔数量。本田委托进行的审计发现,从2003年中期一直到2014年中期,这家日本车企漏报了1729起书面伤亡索赔或通知,远远超出该公司同一时期汇报的约900起索赔。A Honda employee identified the problem in 2011, and federal regulators notified Honda of potential underreporting of death and injury claims in 2012, but the car company did not take action until September 2014. In November, after receiving preliminary findings of the audit, the safety agency demanded that Honda submit more information on its reporting. That action came after the Center for Auto Safety, a private advocacy group, accused Honda in an open letter in October of systematically underreporting the Early Warning claims.本田的一名雇员在2011年发现了这个问题,2012年,联邦监管机构通知了本田可能少报了伤亡索赔,但该公司直到2014年9月才采取行动。去年11月,在获得初步审计结果后,该安全监管机构要求本田提交更多有关其汇报事宜的信息。在那之前的10月,私立权利倡导团体汽车安全中心(Center for Auto Safety)在一封公开信中指责本田有组织地漏报了尽早预警制度要求上报的索赔。“We have resolved this matter and will move forward to build on the important actions Honda has aly taken to address our past shortcomings in early warning reporting,” Rick Schostek, executive vice president of Honda North America, said in a statement on Thursday. “We continue to fully cooperate with N.H.T.S.A.”“我们已经解决了这个问题,并将继续以本田已经采取的重要行动为基础,应对我们过去在尽早预警方面存在的不足,本田北美(Honda North America)的执行副总裁里克·朔斯特克(Rick Schostek)在周四的一份声明中说。“我们会继续与国家公路交通安全局全面合作。”Honda noted that, of the underreported claims, eight, including one death claim, were related to defective Takata airbags, which can deploy violently and rupture in an accident, sending metal fragments flying toward the driver or passenger instead of protecting them.本田指出,漏报的索赔中,包括一起死亡索赔在内的八起索赔与高田(Takata)的问题气囊有关。发生事故时,高田的问题气囊可能会猛然弹出并破裂,导致金属碎片飞向驾驶员或乘客,而不是保护它们。Honda said in a statement that the reporting failures stemmed from data entry, programming and coding errors, as well as a too-narrow and sometimes inaccurate interpretation of regulations.本田公司发表声明称,报告问题是由数据输入、编程及代码错误,以及对规定进行了过于狭隘、有时甚至是错误的解读造成的。Anthony Foxx, the secretary of transportation, said it did not matter that Honda said it had not meant to violate the law.美国运输部部长安东尼·福克斯(Anthony Foxx)表示,本田自称并非有意违法是于事无补的。“Good intentions don’t help the automaker,” he said, adding that the safety agency has asked all automakers to audit their Early Warning reports for compliance.他说,“善意对车厂是没什么帮助的。”他还表示,交通安全局已经要求所有汽车制造商按照规定,对早期预警报告进行审计。Mr. Foxx said that the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration had alerted the Justice Department to Honda’s reporting problems, but that it would be up to that agency to make a decision about a criminal investigation.福克斯表示,国家公路交通安全局已经告知司法部本田的报告问题,但最终由司法部决定是否开展刑事调查。“Seventy million dollars is a start,” said Senator Bill Nelson, a Democrat from Florida. “But we still need automakers to step up and take care of consumers with defective airbags, and we need regulators to insist on more timely and accurate reporting of possible safety defects.”“7000万美元的罚款是一个开始,”佛罗里达州民主党参议员比尔·尼尔森(Bill Nelson)说。“但我们仍需要汽车制造商加快速度,对拥有问题气囊的顾客负责,我们也需要监管部督促制造商更加及时、准确地上报潜在的安全缺陷。”The auto safety agency has had a difficult past year. Last year brought record vehicle recalls and intense scrutiny from lawmakers, safety experts and the news media. A New York Times investigation into the agency’s handling of major safety defects over the last decade found that it often had been slow to identify problems, tentative to act and reluctant to use its full legal arsenal against automakers.过去一年中,这家汽车安全机构的日子并不好过。去年出现了创纪录的汽车召回事件,议员、安全专家及新闻媒体密切关注相关问题。《纽约时报》对该机构过去十年处理重大安全缺陷的举措进行了研究,结果发现它迟迟无法确认问题,采取行动时犹豫不决,而且不愿充分利用法律武器,惩罚汽车制造商。Mr. Rosekind, a former member of the National Transportation Safety Board, was confirmed as the agency’s administrator in December, almost a year after the resignation of David L. Strickland as the agency’s leader. David J. Friedman led the agency in the interim and took much of the heat aimed at its work during a series of congressional hearings last year that focused on the ever-expanding recalls of Takata-made airbags and faulty ignition switches, which General Motors failed to disclose for more than a decade.前国家安全运输委员会(National Transportation Safety Board)成员罗斯金德于去年12月,也就是戴维·L·斯特里克兰(David L. Strickland)辞去国家公路交通安全局局长一职的一年之后,确认担任该局局长。在过渡时期主持工作的戴维·J·弗里德曼(David J. Friedman)因为该机构在去年一系列国会听会期间的工作而饱受批评,听会主要关注规模不断扩大的高田气囊召回及存在故障的点火开关等问题,通用汽车(General Motors)在十多年里没有披露这些问题。This week, Mr. Rosekind said that the safety regulator was overhauling its recall infrastructure to see how it could be improved and said he wanted more resources, including additional workers, for the agency.本周,罗斯金德表示,该安全监管机构正在对分管召回工作的部门进行整顿,看看如何改进工作。罗斯金德表示,他希望为该机构争取更多资源,包括增加工作人员。“This is an agency that is so under-resourced,” he said. “It’s more severe than I realized from the outside.”“这是一个资源极度缺乏的机构,”他说。“比我来这里任职前估计的情况更严重。” /201501/353632A breakthrough in electrochemistry at Cambridge university could lead the way to rechargeable super-batteries that pack five times more energy into a given space than today’s best batteries, greatly extending the range of electric vehicles and potentially transforming the economics of electricity storage.剑桥大学(Cambridge University)在电化学领域的一项突破,或将催生可充电的超级电池。这种电池在给定空间内存储的能量是目前最好电池的五倍,可大大拓展电动汽车的续航里程,并可能大幅改观电力存储的经济效益。Chemistry professor Clare Grey and her team have overcome technical challenges in the development of lithium-air batteries — the only cells theoretically capable of giving electric cars the range of petrol and diesel vehicles without having to carry excessively bulky and heavy battery packs.化学教授克莱尔格雷(Clare Grey)和她的团队攻克了锂空气电池开发中的技术难关。理论上说,只有这种电池能让电动汽车在不必携带巨大而笨重的电池组的情况下,拥有可媲美汽油车及柴油车的续航里程。If the technology can be turned from a laboratory demonstrator into a commercial product, it will enable a car to drive from London to Edinburgh on a single charge, with batteries that cost and weigh one-fifth of the lithium-ion cells that power today’s electric cars.如果能把该技术从实验室的演示品转变为商品,将令汽车只充一次电就能从伦敦驶到爱丁堡(约合648公里——译者注),所用电池的成本和重量却只有今日电动汽车所用锂离子电池的五分之一。“What we’ve achieved is a significant advance for this technology and suggests whole new areas for research,” said Prof Grey. “We haven’t solved all the problems inherent to this chemistry but our results do show routes forward.”格雷教授表示:“我们取得的成就使这项技术向前迈出了重要一步,预示着全新的研究领域。我们仍未全盘解决这一化学机制所固有的问题,但我们的成果确实揭示了前行的道路。”Because lithium-air has such a big theoretical advantage over lithium-ion which dominates rechargeable batteries today — its energy density is potentially 10 times greater — researchers around the world are working on lithium-air.和目前的可充电电池中盛行的锂离子技术相比,锂空气电池理论上拥有巨大的优势——其能量密度可能要高10倍——以至于全球的研究人员都在开展锂空气电池的研究。A research paper published in the journal Science shows that the Cambridge group has overcome some of the practical problems of the technology, particularly the chemical instability that led to a rapid fall-off in performance of the lithium-air cells demonstrated previously.发表在《科学》(Science)期刊上的一篇研究论文显示,剑桥的这个团队攻克了这种技术中的部分实际问题——尤其是化学上的不稳定问题。在此之前,由于这种化学上的不稳定,锂空气电池会显示出性能迅速衰退的现象。The basic chemistry of lithium-air batteries is simple. The cell generates electricity by combining lithium with oxygen to form lithium peroxide and is then recharged by applying a current to reverse the reaction. Making these reactions take place reliably over many cycles is the challenge.锂空气电池的基本化学原理十分简单。这种电池通过锂和氧结合成过氧化锂实现放电,再通过施加电流逆转这一过程而完成充电。而如何可靠地令上述反应在许多周期内反复发生,则是该技术面临的挑战。The Cambridge scientists adjusted the chemistry to make it more controllable. For example, they converted lithium peroxide to lithium hydroxide (a compound that is easier to work with), they added lithium iodide to the system and they made a very porous “fluffy” electrode from graphene, a form of carbon discovered 12 years ago at Manchester university.剑桥的科学家对相关化学过程做了调整,以提高其可控性。比如,他们将过氧化锂转变为更易处理的氢氧化锂,还向系统中添加了碘化锂,并用石墨烯制作了渗透性极好的“蓬松”电极。所谓石墨烯,是12年前曼彻斯特大学(Manchester University)发现的一种碳的同素异形体。The system demonstrated in the Cambridge lab is 90 per cent efficient, say the researchers, and it can be recharged 2,000 times. But they say at least another decade of work is likely to be required to turn it into a commercial battery for cars and for grid storage — storing the intermittent output of solar and wind generators for use when needed.研究人员表示,剑桥实验室中展示的电池系统效率达90%,可充电2000次。不过他们表示,可能至少还需10年的工作,才能将该电池变为可用于汽车和电网蓄电的商业电池。电网蓄电装置用于存储太阳能和风能发电站间歇发出的电力,以便在需要的时候使用。“We have patented the technology and the intellectual property is owned by Cambridge Enterprise, the university’s commercialisation arm,” said Prof Grey. “We are working with a number of companies to take it forward.”格雷教授表示:“我们获得了该技术的专利,其知识产权归剑桥大学商业化机构剑桥实业(Cambridge Enterprise)所有。我们正与多家公司合作推进这项技术。” /201511/407175Barack Obama has declared cyber threats from abroad a “national emergency”, as he took action to impose sanctions on overseas actors engaging in cyber attacks that threaten the US’s national security or economic health.美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)宣布来自国外的网络威胁是“国家紧急状态”,他采取行动,对发动网络攻击、危及美国国家安全或经济健康的海外行为主体实施制裁。The US president’s executive order gives his government new powers to #173;target significant cyber threats that affect critical infrastructure, disrupt the availability of websites or networks, or steal trade secrets or financial information, such as large troves of credit card data.美国总统的行政命令赋予其政府新的权力,打击那些影响了关键基础设施、扰乱网站或网络的可用性、窃取商业机密或财务信息(比如大量信用卡数据)的严重网络威胁。US officials declined to name potential targets of the new sanctions but said, as an example, that the executive order could be used against individual hackers hired by companies or countries.美国官员不愿指明新制裁的可能目标,但表示举例来说,该行政命令可被用于打击受公司或国家雇佣的个体黑客。The US has aly ratcheted up its response to cyber breaches, imposing additional sanctions in January on agencies and officials in North Korea, which it blamed for the breach at Sony Pictures Entertainment last year. In May 2014, it indicted five Chinese soldiers for hacking into six US companies.美国已经逐步加大了针对网络侵入的回应力度,今年1月美国向朝鲜的机构和官员施加额外制裁,指责他们要对去年索尼影视(Sony Pictures Entertainment)受到的网络攻击负责。2014年5月,美国对5名中国军人提出刑事罪名,称其非法侵入6家美国公司的计算机系统。It is unclear whether the new authority will be used in cases that could raise political tensions, such as sanctions against Chinese officials.目前还不清楚这项新的权力会不会被用于可能引发政治紧张的情况,比如对中国官员施加制裁。The new authority closes gaps that have posed a challenge to US law enforcement, such as cyber threats from countries that do not have extradition treaties with the US, lack strong cyber security laws or turn a blind eye to such attacks.这项新的权力弥补了对美国执法部门构成挑战的空白,比如网络威胁的发源地国家与美国没有引渡条约,缺乏强有力的网络安全法律,或者对此类攻击视而不见。The US hopes the executive order will encourage other countries to consider such sanctions, said Michael Daniel, special assistant to the president and cyber security co-ordinator. Potential punishments include freezing assets under US jurisdiction, such as bank accounts, and prohibiting US citizens or entities from engaging in transactions with those under sanctions.美国总统特别助理兼网络安全协调员迈克尔#8226;丹尼尔(Michael Daniel)表示,美国希望这项行政命令将鼓励其他国家考虑此类制裁。可能的惩罚包括冻结在美国管辖范围的资产,如账户,以及禁止美国公民或实体与受制裁目标进行交易。A spate of devastating cyber breaches at JPMorgan Chase, Target, health insurer Anthem and others has prompted the Obama administration to encourage more information sharing on cyber threats between government agencies and with the private sector.根大通(JPMorgan Chase)、Target公司、医疗保险公司Anthem等企业接连遭到的破坏性网络攻击,促使奥巴马政府鼓励政府机构与私营部门分享更多网络威胁信息。Legislation that would encourage such exchanges is again being considered in Congress. Similar bills have stalled in the past because of privacy concerns but lawmakers are hoping recent hack attacks will give new momentum to the proposals.美国国会正再次考虑关于鼓励此类信息交流的立法。出于隐私担忧,过去类似法案曾不了了之,但立法者们希望近期的网络攻击将给予相关提案新的动力。“Cyber threats pose one of the most serious economic and national security challenges to the ed States, and my administration is pursuing a comprehensive strategy to confront them,” Mr Obama said in a statement.奥巴马在一份声明中表示:“网络威胁对美国经济和国家安全构成最严重的挑战之一,我的政府正在推行一项综合策略来应对这些威胁。”Dmitri Alperovitch, co-founder of cyber security firm CrowdStrike, said he was optimistic the new sanctions would “raise the cost to our cyber adversaries and establish a more effective deterrent framework to punish actors”.网络安全公司CrowdStrike的联合创始人德米特里#8226;阿尔佩罗维奇(Dmitri Alperovitch)表示,他看好新的制裁措施,它们将“增加我们的网络对手的成本,建立一个更有效的威慑框架来惩罚那些行为主体。” /201504/368046

Mobile devices have changed the way how films and television programs are created and presented in front of the audience, said Chris D. Nebe, CEO of Monarex Hollywood and director of ;Mysterious China; at a sub forum in Wuzhen on Thursday.周四,在中国乌镇互联网大会的一个分论坛上,蒙纳瑞克斯好莱坞电影公司的CEO, 同时也是《神秘中国》这部片子的导演克里斯蒂·里比说,移动设备已经给电影和电视节目的创作方式带来了改变,它们呈现给观众的方式也与以前不同。Taking the documentary ;Mysterious China; as an example, he said people have trouble watching documentary on mobile phones if it is more than 10 minutes, which requires them to shorten the length of the program.以纪录片《神秘中国》为例,他说,如果超过10分钟的话,人们在手机上观看纪录片就有麻烦,这就要求他们缩短节目的长度。Portable devices show its evident features and filmmakers need to take them into consideration when planning and making the films, he said.他说,便携式视频设备显示了其明显的优点,电影制作人在规划与制作影片时需要考虑到这个因素。Gong Yu, founder and CEO of iqiyi.com, one of China#39;s biggest stream website, thinks mobile devices influence filmmaking when they create their exclusive shows.而作为中国最大的视频网站爱奇艺的创始人和CEO,龚宇认为,在制作独家节目时,移动设备会是影响影片制作的一大因素。He said the viewers of mobile phones are more focused if they are holding their phones to watch s, which means they can understand the story line quicker than when watching TV with friends at a dinner table.他说,如果用户是拿着手机看视频,比起那些和朋友一起边吃饭边看电视的观众,移动手机用户会更专心,这也意味着他们能更快的理解剧情。In addition, viewers can pull the progress bar as they wish when they watch s online which means they can go back if they miss something, Gong said ing research on users#39; behaviors.此外,龚宇引用对用户行为的研究报告表示,如果是在线看视频,观众可以随意的拖动进度条,这意味着如果错过了什么他们可以回看。Reed Hastings, CEO of Neflix Inc, said the key to win audience is telling good stories and good content as Internet makes more good business models possible.Neflix公司CEO黑斯廷斯说,赢得观众的关键是讲述精的故事和精的内容。互联网让更多好的商业模式变得可能。Until the end of 2014, there#39;re 5.2 billion mobile phone users around the world and its popularizing rate reaches to 73 percent, according to Wang Xiaohui, vice chief of China National Radio at the sub forum in Wuzhen. In China, 354 million people are internet users with the average 9.9 hours for watching s online.据乌镇互联网大会分论坛主持人,中国广播电台副台长王晓辉介绍,截至2014年底,全球有52亿移动电话用户,普及率达到73%。在中国,有大约3亿5千4百万互联网视频用户,在线观看视频的平均时长是9.9小时。 /201512/417038

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