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时间:2020年02月17日 10:17:29

Will robots take over the workforce? And if--or when--they do, what jobs will be left for us humans?机器人是否会成为主要劳动力?如果会的话,那么等到那一天,人类还剩什么工作可做呢?These were among the biggest workplace and management questions at South by Southwest Interactive in Austin over the weekend. Several of the panels at the sprawling tech conference focused on our future robot overlords, with many of the discussions taking a rosy view that the workforce will indeed be dominated by robots in the not-too-far future--and why that is a good thing.上周末在美国得克萨斯州奥斯汀(Austin)举行的西南偏南(South by Southwest Interactive)大会上,上述问题成了工作场所和管理方面讨论最热烈的话题。此次大会的几个座谈小组重点讨论未来机器人独霸劳动力市场的情况,很多参与讨论的人都乐观地认为,在不太遥远的未来,机器人确实会在工作场所占据主导地位,并且讨论了为何说这是件好事。Carl Bass, the chief executive of Autodesk, acknowledged that workplace automation has eliminated or reduced many manufacturing jobs, and will continue to do so in the future, leading to major shifts in the labor market. Entire industries, such as trucking, will eventually be disrupted by robotic advances like self-driving cars, he said. (Bass cited the book, #39; The Second Machine Age,#39; by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee as a source for this robot-heavy scenario.)欧特克公司(Autodesk Inc.)的首席执行长巴斯(Carl Bass)承认,工厂自动化已取缔或减少了许多制造业岗位,而且未来这一情况将会继续下去,这将导致劳动力市场发生巨大转变。他说,像货车运输这样的整个行业最终将被无人驾驶汽车等机器人技术进步所颠覆。(巴斯援引布林约尔松(Erik Brynjolfsson)和麦卡菲(Andrew McAfee)共同撰写的《第二个机器时代》(The Second Machine Age)来论他的这一设想。)But, Bass asked: #39;Are the jobs lost to automation ones that you would want for your children?#39; Few parents, he said, dreamed their kids would someday become fuel pumpers or elevator operators, jobs aly replaced by automation. In the next 30 years, Bass added, smart machines and robots will outnumber humans on the planet.但巴斯也问道,那些被自动化取代的工作是你想让孩子以后从事的职业吗?他说,几乎没有家长会希望自己的孩子有朝一日成为加油站的加油员或电梯操作员,这种工作已实现自动化。巴斯补充说,未来30年,全球智能机器和机器人的总量将超过全球人口总量。Bass presented some outlandish ideas to help societies deal with the structural changes generated by a robot-heavy workforce, including taxing economic output rather than income, or implementing a #39; negative income tax,#39; in which governments pay citizens a stipend in order to guarantee a level of income.为了帮助社会应对机器人主导劳动力市场所引发的结构性变化,巴斯提出了一些奇特的想法,例如对经济产出而非收入征税,或实施“负所得税”――即政府向公民付津贴以确保某一收入水平。#39;With our creativity and imagination, we will find harmony with the robots,#39; Bass said.巴斯说,凭借我们的创造力和想象力,我们应该能与机器人和谐相处。Meanwhile, other discussions focused on identifying jobs were likely to remain safe from robots. Heather Knight, a Carnegie Mellon roboticist who studies social interactions between humans and robots, suggested that hairdressers might be safe. But not because robots can#39;t cut hair--she said the relationship between hairdressers and their clients simply can#39;t be automated. (And, she added, some people might be wary of a robot holding a sharp blade so close to their necks, although plenty of robots aly perform delicate surgery.)与此同时,其他讨论的焦点是确认哪些工作可能不会被机器人所取代。卡内基梅隆大学(Carnegie Mellon)研究人类和机器人之间社会互动的机器人专家奈特(Heather Knight)暗示,美发师这一职业或许不会受到机器人的影响。她说,这并不是因为机器人不能剪头发,而是因为美发师和客户之间的关系无法实现自动化。她还说,虽然有很多机器人已经在为人类进行精微的外科手术,但对于机器人拿着锋利的刀片如此接近他们的脖子,一些人可能会心存戒备。Another job deemed safe? Roboticist.另一个不会受机器人影响的工作是什么?是机器人专家。 /201403/279768

The many promises of 3D-printing include intricate product prototypes, one-of-a-kind jewelry, even human tissue. Now, a group has revealed a proof-of-concept of another sort: a gun.3D打印机术有很多光明前景,其中包括打印复杂的原型产品、款式独一无二的珠宝,甚至是打印人体组织。不过现在,有一个组织又发现了3D打印的另一用途,那就是制造。Texas-based Defense Distributed, founded by 25-year-old University of Texas law student Cody Wilson, has given Forbes.com images it says show the first 3D-printed handgun. The group, which is aiming for nonprofit status, claims the weapon can fire standard handgun rounds. The majority of the device, called the ;Liberator,; is fabricated entirely out of plastic, save for a nail used as a firing pin as well as a six-ounce piece of steel, intended to allow the gun to be detected by metal detectors.德克萨斯州非盈利组织Defense Distributed是由一名年仅25岁的德州大学法律系学生科迪威尔森创办的。该组织近日给《福布斯》杂志的网站Forbes.com提供了一些图片,声称图片中的就是世界上第一完全采用3D打印技术造出的手。这个组织还表示,这手可发射标准的手子弹。这手的名字叫“解放者”(Liberator),它的主体部分完全是用塑料制造的,只有撞针是金属。另外,里还装了一块6盎司的铁片,目的是为了让这能够被金属探测器探测出来。Wilson generated headlines last year when he announced his plans to produce a 3D-printed gun. It took the group about eight months to design the Liberator.去年,威尔森宣布打算利用3D打印技术制造一的时候,他的大胆计划就吸引了大量关注。这个组织大概花了8个月的时间设计出了“解放者”。Also known as additive manufacturing, 3D printing is a method of making a three-dimensional solid objects from a computerized model. Commonly, 3D printers lay down successive layers of plastic material to create objects of virtually any shape. The printers can also create interlocking mechanical parts, such as gears and cogs. The process is distinct from traditional machining, in which objects are whittled or sculpted down from larger blocks of material.3D打印技术也叫叠加制造技术,它是一种可以通过电脑模型制作出三维实物的技术。简单来说,3D打印机通过连续不断地叠加塑料材料,几乎可以塑造出任何形状的物体。3D打印机也可以制造出具有连锁机制的零部件,比如齿轮和接榫等。这个过程与传统加工方法存在显著的区别,后者通常是通过对大块材料进行切割或雕塑来加工复杂的零件。Boston-based Luxe Research estimates that the 7 million 3D printing market will grow to a whopping .4 billion by 2025. Most of that growth will be driven by industrial applications, particularly in medical, automotive and aerospace industries.据波士顿Luxe Research研究公司预测,到2025年,3D打印市场的市值将从现在的7.77亿美元猛增到84亿美元。其中大多数增长是由商业应用驱动的,尤其是在医药、汽车和航空领域。But devices aimed at consumers are increasingly popular. Late last month, New York-based Shapeways raised a million investment round lead by Andreessen Horowitz. The company has some 10,000 ;shop owners,; or individuals who have designed products, from shoes to cellphone cases, that they print out and sell through Shapeways#39; website.不过以普通消费者为目标的3D打印设备也在变得越来越流行。上个月末,纽约的Shapeways公司获得了一轮由安德里森霍洛维茨基金(Andreessen Horowitz)等公司投资的3,000万美元融资。Shapeways公司拥有大约10,000个“店主”或个体手工业者,他们自行设计了从鞋子到手机壳等各种产品,然后用3D打印技术制造出来,再通过Shapeways的网站销售。On Friday, office supply giant Staples (SPLS) announced that it is the first major American retailer to sell 3D printers. The retailer will sell the Cube 3D Printer from 3D Systems on Staples.com for 99.99. The device will be available in a limited number of Staples stores by the end of June.上周五,办公用品提供商史泰(Stapes)宣布,它将成为美国第一家销售3D打印机的零售企业。它将在自己的官网Staples.com的“3D系统”一栏里以1299.99美元的价格销售Cube 3D打印机。另外到今年六月底,在史泰的门店里也将能够买到数量有限的3D打印机。According to Forbes, the Liberator is capable of connecting to different barrels, allowing for various calibers of ammunition. The device#39;s creator plans to eventually publish the files necessary to print it at home as well as details on its operation.据《福布斯》报道,“解放者”手可以安装不同口径的管,从而能发射不同口径的子弹。该型的设计者打算最终在网络上发布可以让人们在家自行“打印”这手所需的图纸,以及这手的详细操作方法。That will surely raise another round of concerns, particularly in the wake of recent gun violence around the country. Stratasys, a company that makes 3D printers, confiscated their machine from Defense Distributed last year after the company discovered the printer was being used for gun development.此举当然会引起新一轮的担忧,尤其是在美国最近案频发的背景下。3D打印机制造商Stratasys去年发现Defense Distributed在利用它的3D打印机研发后,就从Defense Distributed手里收回了它的3D打印机。 /201305/241302

Are you certain your online activities are private? Think again.你确定你的上网活动是隐私吗?再想一想。Not only are your surfing sessions tracked by websites, search engines and social networks, but often your Internet provider, Web browser, government and potentially hundreds of online tracking companies.据《今日美国报》网站报道,不仅是你的浏览过程被网站、搜索引擎和社交网络跟踪,还会被你的网络务提供者,网页浏览器,政府以及上网络追踪公司所追踪。Whether it#39;s to collect valuable marketing data or prevent criminal activity, everything you think you#39;re doing privately in the comfort of your home is anything but private.不论是收集可贵的市场营销数据,或者是防范犯罪活动,所有你认为你在家里私下做的事情绝不是保密的。That said, there are a few ways to spend time online anonymously. The following are a few suggestions.即便如此,我们仍有一些方法匿名地畅游网络。以下便是一些建议。SMART SOFTWARE智能软件How does Facebook know to show you ads for your local gym or supermarket? In part it#39;s because your computer#39;s unique Internet Protocol (IP) address, assigned by your Internet provider, reveals your geographical whereabouts. Even if your computer generates a different IP address every time you boot up or log online, this number (e.g. 220.165.119.12) can still tell your general location.脸书是如何向你呈现你当地的健身房或者超市的广告的?一部分是由于你电脑唯一的IP地址。这个地址注册在你的网络务提供商之下,揭示了你的地理位置。即使你的电脑每次连接登陆网络时,都产生一个不同的IP地址,这个数字(例如:220.165.119.12)仍然会暴露你的大体位置。There are a variety of solutions that can hide your Internet connection, allowing you to remain anonymous while online.你有许多的方法可以隐藏你的网络连接,使得你上网时保持匿名。Some are websites, such as free ;online proxy servers; that conceal your identity. Simply point the Web address (URL) to the proxy server and surf right from its website (check out proxy.org for a list of great options).一些是网站,例如免费的“网络代理务器”——可以隐藏你的身份。简单地将网络地址(URL)改成代理务器,并直接从网页浏览网站(请查看proxy.com的一张列出许多选项的清单)。Others prefer to download Virtual Private Network (VPN) software that encrypts your online sessions.其他的就倾向于下载虚拟专用网(VPN)软件——可以将你的网络部分加密。The browser-independent Hotspot Shield from AnchorFree (anchorfree.com), for example — available for Windows, Macs, iPhone and Android — channels all Web activities through a personal VPN and secures Internet communications by turning all HTTP traffic into the safer HTTPS (which is what your bank uses for a safe connection). There#39;s an ad-supported free version and a beefier ;elite; option (.95/year) with more bells and whistles.来自于AnchorFree(anchorfree.com)的独立浏览器热点屏蔽软件,举个例子——对于Windows,Mac,Iphone和Android操作系统均有效。它通过一个个人的VPN疏导所的网页活动,并转变所有HTTP通讯成为一个更安全的HTTPS来使网络交流更为安全(这就是你的运用的更为安全的连接)。一个无广告持的免费版本和一个更结实拥有更多修饰的“精锐”可供选择(.95/年)。Similarly, Tor is free software that defends you against Internet surveillance that threatens personal freedom and privacy. Short for ;The Onion Router; — which gets its name for its ;layered; approach to the encryption process — Tor (torproject.org) provides online anonymity as the software routes Internet traffic through a worldwide volunteer network of servers to conceal your location or online usage patterns.相同地,Tor是一个免费的软件——保护你不被威胁个人自由和隐私,免于网络监视。Tor是“The Onion Router; (洋葱路由器)的缩写。这名字的由来是由于它保密途径的”分层的”方式。该软件通过一个世界范围的志愿务器网络——可以藏匿你的位置或者上网习惯,将网络交流分路,Tor(torproject.org)提供网络的匿名性。USB STICKSU盘In some cases, software to encrypt your connection is kept on a USB drive — so you can remain safe and secure even when using a public PC.在一些情况下,软件对于你的连接保密是存储于一个USB储存盘上的——因而当你用一个公共的电脑时,你可确保安全和保密。SurfEasy Private Browser (.99 one-time fee; surfeasy.com) is a tiny USB key that fits into a credit card-shaped case to be kept in your wallet. When you plug it into a PC or Mac — be it your own computer or a public one — it instantly launches its own password-protected browser and you#39;re good to go (no proxy or network settings to configure).SurfEasy Private Browser (方便浏览的保密浏览器,.99 一次性缴费;surfeasy.com)是一个小小的USB钥匙——可以放入一个信用卡形状的盒子,并且放进你的钱包。当你将它插入一个电脑或者苹果电脑——随便是你自己的电脑或者一个公共电脑——这钥匙会立刻安装它自己的有密码保护的浏览器,如此一劳永逸(无需设定代理或者网络设置)。Your browsing session is handled through SurfEasy#39;s fast and secure private proxy network. Your IP address will be masked throughout the session.你的浏览部分通过SurfEasy快速和安全的隐私代理网络处理。你的IP地址在整个过程中都会被掩藏。The company also has a new downloadable product called SurfEasy VPN that can protect computers, smartphones and tablets.这家公司同时也有个新的可供下载的产品叫做SurfEasy VPN (轻松浏览虚拟专用网)——可以保护电脑,智能手机以及平板电脑。Also consider Tails (tails.boum.org), which can be downloaded and installed onto a USB stick to run independently of the computer#39;s original operating system. Like SurfEasy, it lets you browse the Web anonymously — on virtually any computer — as all connections are channeled through the aforementioned Tor network.另外,考虑一下Tails (tails.boum.org)——可以单独下载并且安装于U盘上,并且可独立于电脑原本的操作系统单独运行。例如 SurfEasy,让你匿名地浏览网页——实际上在任何电脑上——因为所有的连接都由上述提及的Tor网络引导。BROWSER TWEAKS特殊浏览器Anonymous proxy software is a great way to mask your IP address online, but there is still plenty of information about your Web-surfing habits stored on your computer — which could also be viewed over a network, say, at the office, by your IT department.匿名代理软件是一个隐藏你IP地址的绝妙方法,但是却仍有许多关于你的网页浏览习惯的信息存储于你的电脑,这些也可以被网络查看,比如说,在办公室,被你的IT部门(网路技术部门)。At least it#39;s somewhat easy to control your privacy settings directly in your Web browser, unless your company forbids non-administrators from making changes to your browser settings.至少这样直接在你的网络浏览器里,控制你的隐私设置比较容易,除非你的电脑禁止非管理员对你的浏览设置做出改变。You can disable cookies — tiny text files stored on your computer with information about where you#39;ve been online, passwords and other info — and you should also delete your browser history to cover your tracks. All major Web browsers — such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome or Safari — allow you to delete your surfing history: Simply go to the Options or Settings in your favorite browser and you#39;ll see how to do this.你可以使得信息记录程序(cookies)——储存于你的电脑的一点点的关于你上网浏览过什么,密码以及其他信息的文字文档,不工作。你也应当删除你的浏览记录来掩藏你的轨迹。所有主要的网络浏览器——例如Internet Explorer(网络探索者),Firefox(火狐),Chrome(谷歌浏览器)或者Safari(苹果浏览器)——都允许你删除你的浏览历史:简单地找到选项或者设置菜单,你会明白如何删除浏览历史。You might want to turn off auto-complete or someone on your computer could type in a few letters in a search engine or Web address (URL) bar and any recent places you visited could fill in automatically. And don#39;t click to allow sites to ;remember my password; or someone could gain access to your private or financial information.你或许想要关闭自动完成功能,否则某人在你的电脑上仅仅在搜索引擎或者地址栏中输入一些字母,任何你的近期浏览过的地址会自动地填写。还有,不要选择允许网站“记住我的密码”否则某人可以获得你的隐私或者账户的信息。The easiest thing to do, however, is to see if your Web browser has settings for surfing incognito — most of the major browsers do today. By enabling these privacy settings, your browser won#39;t save any history (and download history), search queries, cookies or passwords.不过最简单的方法是,看你的网络浏览器时候有无痕浏览的选项——大多数主要的浏览器确有此项功能。通过启动这些隐私设置,你的浏览器不会保存任何历史(以及下载历史),搜索词条,信息记录(cookies)或者密码。When it comes to your search engine, you could choose not to save your history. Google, for example, was recently ordered to make this easier for users, to avoid European privacy rules. You could also choose not to log into your Google account when using these services (or not use them at all) or you might want to install one of the free browser plug-ins that tell Google and other advertisers to back off.说到你的搜索引擎,你可以选择不保存你的历史,举个例子,比如谷歌,最近接到命令为客户把此项功能简易化,来防止欧洲的隐私条例。当你运用这些务的时候(或者根本不用),你也可以选择不登陆你的谷歌账户,否则你或许会想要安装某个免费的浏览器插件,让谷歌以及其他的广告商远离你。Finally, you might have heard Facebook is going to start sharing Web-browsing history it collects with advertisers to display more targeted ads — yes, even on non-Facebook sites you visit. But you can opt out of this within Facebook#39;s Privacy settings.最后,你或许已经听说过脸书将会和广告商分享它收集的网页浏览历史,来呈现更有针对性的广告——是的,甚至你浏览的非脸书的网站上。但你可以在脸书的隐私设置中选择逃离这些。 /201406/308587


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