山东第三医院门诊部预约爱对话

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月23日 18:18:31
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Not necessarily into the brash, bullish, brute image generally associated with Lamborghinis?不那么喜欢通常与兰基尼汽车联系在一起的傲慢、自信和野兽般的形象?Then you’ll love the latest one. Consider if you please the new Hurácan LP 610-4, Lamborghini’s 610-horsepower carbon fiber coupe. Designed as the successor to the iconic Gallardo, it’s considerably more refined than previous offerings from the Italian brand with a fresh new look inspired by the excellent Aventador and refined in a new improved body made of carbon fiber and aluminum. (Translation: It’s lighter with better rigidity!)那么这款最新车型可能符合你的心意。请考虑兰基尼最新款610马力碳纤维双门硬顶跑车——Hurácan LP 610-4。作为典范车型Gallardo的继任者,它比该意大利品牌之前的产品更加讲究;灵感源于非同凡响的Aventador,采用全新外观;车身也得到改进,采用碳纤维和铝合金制造。Hurácan has a mid-mounted 5.2-liter V10 engine that pairs the aforementioned 610 horsepower with 413 pound-feet of torque over all four wheels. It also offers Lamborghini’s first-ever seven-speed, dual-clutch transmission. (Sorry boys, no manual drive available.)Hurácan搭载一个中置5.2升V10引擎,采用四轮驱动系统,最大功率610马力,最大扭矩413磅·英尺。该车还装备了兰基尼首个7速双离合变速箱(不好意思各位,这款车没有手动档版本)。All to say that this car will hit 62mph in 3.2 seconds and has a top speed of more than 200 mph.该车可以在3.2秒内从静止加速至62英里每小时,最高时速超过200英里每小时。Also on offer in the new whip: Standard carbon ceramic brakes, three drive modes and a stop-start technology that improves efficiency. Magnetic shocks and a variable steering system are optional.这款新车的配置还包括:标配碳陶刹车盘、三种驾驶模式以及启停技术(可以减少油耗)。磁流变避震悬挂控制系统以及一个可变传动比动态转向系统是可选配置。And lest you traditionalists wonder, this Lamborghini, too, is named after a famous fighting bull. The bull Huracán of the Spanish Conte de la Patilla breed was known for his outstanding courage and strong sense of attack. He fought in Alicante in August 1879 and according to Lamborghini records showed “unrelenting character” while remaining defiant and invincible, thus entering into the legend of fighting bulls’ history.为免各位传统派人士提出疑问,特意说明一下,这款兰基尼汽车同样以一头著名的斗牛的名字命名。拥有西班牙斗牛Conte de la Patilla血统的Huracán因其非凡的勇气以及强大的攻击意识闻名。根据兰基尼的记录,1879年8月这头斗牛在Alicante战斗时,展示出“永不屈的性格”并始终保持昂扬斗志,因而成为斗牛历史上的一个传奇。Private previews of the car start next month, but look for the live public debut next March at the Geneva Motor Show. I’m not typically the bullish type, but if Hurácan handles anything like its predecessor, we’ll get along just fine.该车的私人预览从下个月开始,不过它将在明年3月的日内瓦车展(Geneva Motor Show)上公开亮相。通常我不是那种爱持乐观看法的人,不过如果Hurácan可以达到其前任的表现,我们将会喜欢它的。 /201401/272498In the past few decades, the fortunate among us have recognised the hazards of living with an overabundance of food (obesity, diabetes) and have started to change our diets. But most of us do not yet understand that news is to the mind what sugar is to the body. News is easy to digest. The media feeds us small bites of trivial matter, tidbits that don#39;t really concern our lives and don#39;t require thinking. That#39;s why we experience almost no saturation. Unlike ing books and long magazine articles (which require thinking), we can swallow limitless quantities of news flashes, which are bright-coloured candies for the mind.Today, we have reached the same point in relation to information that we faced 20 years ago in regard to food. We are beginning to recognise how toxic news can be.过去几十年,我们有幸认识到过量饮食的危害(例如导致肥胖和糖尿病),进而开始改变饮食结构。但是,大多数人并不知道新闻之于思维,如同糖类之于身体。媒体奉上的逸闻趣事、琐碎信息其实与我们的生活无甚关联,但易于理解,读起来并不费脑。因此我们对新闻从未有过饱足感。与阅读书籍和长篇杂志文章(这些都需要边读边思考)相比,无数闪现在眼前的小段新闻更加易于“吞噬”。对于思维,它们就像五缤纷的糖果。如今,新闻对于我们来讲如同20年前的食物一样,人们逐渐意识到,新闻可能也是有害的。News misleads. Take the following event (borrowed from Nassim Taleb). A car drives over a bridge, and the bridge collapses. What does the news media focus on? The car. The person in the car. Where he came from. Where he planned to go. How he experienced the crash (if he survived). But that is all irrelevant. What#39;s relevant? The structural stability of the bridge. That#39;s the underlying risk that has been lurking, and could lurk in other bridges. But the car is flashy, it#39;s dramatic, it#39;s a person (non-abstract), and it#39;s news that#39;s cheap to produce.News leads us to walk around with the completely wrong risk map in our heads.So terrorism is over-rated. Chronic stress is under-rated. The collapse of Lehman Brothers is overrated. Fiscal irresponsibility is under-rated. Astronauts are over-rated. Nurses are under-rated.新闻产生误导。下面借用纳西姆·塔勒布[1]的一个例子:一辆车驶过一座桥,结果桥塌了。这则新闻的重点是什么呢?是这辆车,是车里的人—他从哪里来,要到哪儿去?(如果他幸免于难)这场事故经过是怎样的?然而,这些都无关紧要。什么才是至关重要的呢?是大桥的结构稳定性。它暗含着重大风险,而同样的风险还可能存在于其他桥梁。但是新闻中却充斥着这辆车如何光鲜亮丽,遭遇如何扣人心弦的信息,甚至把它刻画成一个人物(非抽象的)。如此报道,毫无价值。新闻给大脑一张全然错误的风险地图,让我们偏离了重点。正因如此,恐怖主义、雷曼兄弟破产以及宇航员这类主题被过度渲染,而慢性精神压力、财政失责以及医护人员这类主题却报道不足。We are not rational enough to be exposed to the press. Watching an airplane crash on television is going to change your attitude toward that risk, regardless of its real probability. If you think you can compensate with the strength of your own inner contemplation, you are wrong. Bankers and economists – who have powerful incentives to compensate for news-borne hazards – have shown that they cannot. The only solution: cut yourself off from news consumption entirely.面对媒体,我们尚不够理性。看到电视里报道飞机失事,也不管这种概率实际有多大,人们很容易就改变自己对此类风险的看法。如果你以为能通过内心的深思熟虑抵消这种影响,那么你错了。事实表明,家和经济学家纵然利用强大的手段也无法弥补新闻导致的危害。唯一解决之道是:与新闻完全隔绝。News is irrelevant. Out of the approximately 10,000 news stories you have in the last 12 months, name one that – because you consumed it – allowed you to make a better decision about a serious matter affecting your life, your career or your business. The point is: the consumption of news is irrelevant to you. But people find it very difficult to recognise what#39;s relevant. It#39;s much easier to recognise what#39;s new. The relevant versus the new is the fundamental battle of the current age. Media organisations want you to believe that news offers you some sort of a competitive advantage. Many fall for that. We get anxious when we#39;re cut off from the flow of news. In reality, news consumption is a competitive disadvantage. The less news you consume, the bigger the advantage you have.新闻无关紧要。在你最近一年中阅读的上万条资讯中,很难找出这样一条新闻:因为读了它,让你面临人生、职场或事业的重大问题时做出了更好的决定。原因在于,你所读的新闻与你自身毫无关系。人们很难辨别哪些新闻与自己有关系,但是很容易知道哪些是新的。当今时代,关联度和新颖性是一对基本矛盾。媒体想让人们觉得新闻可以为之提供某种竞争优势,而许多人竟信以为真。一旦与新闻隔绝,我们就焦躁不安。而事实上,新闻只会令人在竞争中处于劣势。读的新闻越少,你的优势反而越多。News has no explanatory power. News items are bubbles popping on the surface of a deeper world. Will accumulating facts help you understand the world? Sadly, no. The relationship is inverted. The important stories are non-stories: slow, powerful movements that develop below journalists#39; radar but have a transforming effect. The more ;news factoids; you digest, the less of the big picture you will understand. If more information leads to higher economic success, we#39;d expect journalists to be at the top of the pyramid. That#39;s not the case.新闻无法解释世界。新闻不过是浮于表面的水泡,现实世界深藏其下。不断积累事实有助于你了解这个世界吗?很遗憾,不能。恰恰相反,真正重要的事实并没有报道出来。它们不为记者关注,发展缓慢,却拥有改变一切的强大能量。你对杜撰新闻消费得越多,你对现实宏图的了解就越少。如果资讯越多,经济就越繁荣,那我们真该期望记者们稳坐金字塔顶端。但事实绝非如此。News is toxic to your body. It constantly triggers the limbic system . Panicky stories spur the release of cascades of glucocorticoid (cortisol). This deregulates your immune system and inhibits the release of growth hormones. In other words, your body finds itself in a state of chronic stress. High glucocorticoid levels cause impaired digestion, lack of growth (cell, hair, bone), nervousness and susceptibility to infections. The other potential side-effects include fear, aggression, tunnel-vision and desensitisation.新闻毒害身体。它不断触动大脑边缘系统。令人恐慌的新闻使人体内糖皮质激素(皮质醇)呈级联式分泌,导致免疫系统紊乱,抑制生长荷尔蒙分泌。也就是说,使身体长期处于精神压力之下。高糖皮质激素水平还导致消化功能受损、(细胞、毛发和骨骼)生长缓慢、情绪紧张,让人容易感染疾病。其他潜在副作用还包括:恐惧感、攻击性、视野狭窄和麻木不仁。News increases cognitive errors. News feeds the mother of all cognitive errors: confirmation bias. In the words of Warren Buffett: ;What the human being is best at doing is interpreting all new information so that their prior conclusions remain intact.; News exacerbates this flaw. We become prone to overconfidence, take stupid risks and misjudge opportunities. It also exacerbates another cognitive error: the story bias. Our brains crave stories that ;make sense; – even if they don#39;t correspond to reality. Any journalist who writes, ;The market moved because of X; or ;the company went bankrupt because of Y; is an idiot. I am fed up with this cheap way of ;explaining; the world.新闻增加认知错误。新闻为“确认偏误”[2]提供养分,而后者正是一切认知错误的源泉。沃伦·巴菲特曾说“人类最擅长将所有新信息都解释一通,以确保先前的结论不受影响。”新闻则是这种缺陷的帮凶,使我们过于自信,盲目冒险,错判时机。此外,新闻还助长了另一种认知错误:新闻偏见。大脑渴望“有意义”的新闻,即便这些新闻与事实不符。弱智记者在稿子中解释“市场因为某某原因而波动”或者“公司因为某某原因而破产”,见解之拙劣,令我不胜其烦。News inhibits thinking. Thinking requires concentration. Concentration requires uninterrupted time. News pieces are specifically engineered to interrupt you. They are like viruses that steal attention for their own purposes. News makes us shallow thinkers. But it#39;s worse than that. News severely affects memory. There are two types of memory. Long-range memory#39;s capacity is nearly infinite, but working memory is limited to a certain amount of slippery data. The path from short-term to long-term memory is a choke-point in the brain, but anything you want to understand must pass through it. If this passageway is disrupted, nothing gets through. Because news disrupts concentration, it weakens comprehension. Online news has an even worse impact. In a 2001 study two scholars in Canada showed that comprehension declines as the number of hyperlinks in a document increases. Why? Because whenever a link appears, your brain has to at least make the choice not to click, which in itself is distracting. News is an intentional interruption system.新闻抑制思考。只有免受打扰才能集中注意力,进而潜心思考。新闻片段却似乎是专为打断思考而设计。它们如同病毒,为了一己之私分散人的注意力,令我们无法深入思考。更糟糕的是,新闻严重损害。记忆分两种:长期记忆和短期记忆。前者潜力近乎无限,后者却仅限于一定数量的不确切信息。短期记忆转化为长期记忆是大脑的一项瓶颈,但要形成对事物的理解,这一关不可逾越。如果这一过程中断,我们什么都学不会。新闻打断注意力,从而弱化了理解力。网络新闻的负面影响则更为严重。2001年,两位加拿大学者曾做过一项研究。他们发现,文章中链接越多,人们的理解力就下降得越快。原因何在?因为一旦出现链接,大脑就至少得做出是否点击的决定,这本身就是在分散注意力。可见,新闻是专门打断思维的机器。News works like a drug. As stories develop, we want to know how they continue. With hundreds of arbitrary storylines in our heads, this craving is increasingly compelling and hard to ignore. Scientists used to think that the dense connections formed among the 100 billion neurons inside our skulls were largely fixed by the time we reached adulthood. Today we know that this is not the case. Nerve cells routinely break old connections and form new ones. The more news we consume, the more we exercise the neural circuits devoted to skimming and multitasking while ignoring those used for ing deeply and thinking with profound focus. Most news consumers – even if they used to be avid book ers – have lost the ability to absorb lengthy articles or books.After four, five pages they get tired, their concentration vanishes, they become restless. It#39;s not because they got older or their schedules became more onerous.It#39;s because the physical structure of their brains has changed.新闻就像毒品。随着新闻事件发展,我们想知道接下来发生了什么。脑子里那几百种故事情节令好奇心愈发难以抗拒,挥之不去。过去,科学家们认为大脑内上千亿神经元间的紧密联系大部分在我们成年之前就固定下来。而今,我们发现事实并非如此。神经细胞之间不断打破旧联系,形成新联系,如同例行公事一般。接触的新闻越多,大脑就要越发频繁地启动用于略读和多重任务处理的神经回路,忽略用于深度阅读和专注思考的神经回路。多数新闻读者(即使他们曾经热衷读书)已经失去了理解长篇文章或书籍的能力,仅仅阅读四、五页,就无法集中注意力,且心生厌倦,烦躁不已。这并非因为年龄增长或者事务繁重,而是因为大脑生理构造发生了改变。News wastes time. If you the newspaper for 15 minutes each morning, then check the news for 15 minutes during lunch and 15 minutes before you go to bed, then add five minutes here and there when you#39;re at work, then count distraction and refocusing time, you will lose at least half a day every week.Information is no longer a scarce commodity. But attention is. You are not that irresponsible with your money, reputation or health. Why give away your mind?新闻浪费时间。如果你每天早晨、午餐时和睡觉前各花15分钟读新闻,工作中再不时抽出5分钟来看新闻,不妨计算一下注意力分散和重新找回所耗时间。你会发现每周至少半天时间就这么浪费了。新闻不再是稀缺商品,而注意力却是。你不会不在乎金钱、名誉和健康,可为什么却不把思维当回事呢?News makes us passive. News stories are overwhelmingly about things you cannot influence. The daily repetition of news about things we can#39;t act upon makes us passive. It grinds us down until we adopt a worldview that is pessimistic, desensitised, sarcastic and fatalistic. The scientific term is ;learned helplessness;. It#39;s a bit of a stretch, but I would not be surprised if news consumption, at least partially contributes to the widesp disease of depression.新闻令人消极。绝大多数新闻里讲述的都是我们无法改变的事。每天反复阅读新闻,因无法左右现实而饱受折磨,我们就会变得消极。久而久之,或悲观厌世,或麻木不仁,喜欢冷嘲热讽,凡事听天由命。这一现象在科学上称为“习得性无助”。也许这么说有点言过其实,但是新闻消费至少在一定程度上导致抑郁症流行。对此我并不感到意外。News kills creativity. Finally, things we aly know limit our creativity. This is one reason that mathematicians, novelists, composers and entrepreneurs often produce their most creative works at a young age. Their brains enjoy a wide, uninhabited space that emboldens them to come up with and pursue novel ideas. I don#39;t know a single truly creative mind who is a news junkie – not a writer, not a composer, mathematician, physician, scientist, musician, designer, architect or painter. On the other hand, I know a bunch of viciously uncreative minds who consume news like drugs. If you want to come up with old solutions, news. If you are looking for new solutions, don#39;t.新闻扼杀创造力。这是我要讲的最后一点。已知信息限制了创造力。这也是为什么数学家、小说家、作曲家和企业家最有创造力的成绩产生于年轻时期。他们脑海中有片广袤无垠、人迹罕至的天地,在这里他们可以大胆追求新奇想法。据我所知,那些有创造力的人,无论是作家、作曲家、数学家、科学家、音乐家、画家,还是医师、设计师或建筑师,没有谁是新闻“瘾君子”。另一方面,大量极度缺乏创造力的人却像吸毒一样对新闻成瘾。想墨守成规?看新闻吧。想别出心裁?还是别看了。Society needs journalism – but in a different way. Investigative journalism is always relevant. We need reporting that polices our institutions and uncovers truth. But important findings don#39;t have to arrive in the form of news. Long journal articles and in-depth books are good, too.社会需要新闻行业,但不是现在这种局面。调查性新闻报道往往能切中要害,而我们的报道就应该发挥监督各类机构和揭露事实真相的作用。不过,重大发现不一定非得以新闻形式体现。长篇杂志文章以及有深度的书籍也是上佳选择。I have now gone without news for four years, so I can see, feel and report the effects of this freedom first-hand: less disruption, less anxiety, deeper thinking, more time, more insights. It#39;s not easy, but it#39;s worth it.近四年,我摆脱新闻的束缚,转而选择去看,去感觉。我的切身体会是:内心不再焦虑彷徨,可以深度思考而不被打断,有了更多时间来洞察世事。虽得之不易,但物有所值。 /201401/271224

The life-limiting risks of poor diet, excessive alcohol and smoking are widely known. But a new service is to be launched to more accurately predict their impact as we reach old age.The new website will use a mathematical formula to calculate how the lives of users will turn out and what steps they can take to alter their future.Lord Geoffrey Filkin, chairman of the Centre of Ageing Better is overseeing the new site, which he believes will provide a ‘gold standard’ of evidence to help maintain health and happiness. He said: ‘We will not be telling people what they should do, but we will be providing them with a gold standard of scientific and research evidence if they want to improve their wellbeing in later life.’这不是在线算命,而是利用较为科学的算法,通过你的生活习惯、饮食习惯来推算出你的生命年龄。这是英国Centre of Ageing Better公司推出的一项在线务,他们相信通过这个务器,可以帮助人们维持健康而幸福的生活。The website, which will use data from Public Health England, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and the office of National Statistics,will be able to answer questions concerning life expectancy and the benefits of improved diet.Users will also be able to ask questions concerning their expected income, how to increase pension size and whether they have enough friends to stave off loneliness in old age.The Centre of Ageing Better is a new trust launched with a £50million grant from the Big Lottery Fund.The website, set to be in service by 2015, will be one of the centre’s first projects and will receive full support from the Government, of which it will remain independent of.It will offer life predictions for those aged 30 and above by creating a personalised plan.In an interview with the Sunday Times, Lord Filkin said the website’s aim was to inspire people to improve their lives.He said: ‘Everybody is going to live much longer than we have experienced in the past, so it is really important to work out how we can ensure that we make this as enjoyable and meaningful as we can.公司主席Geoffrey Filkin说:我们不会告诉人们应该做什么,但是我们会提供人们一个科学的标准和研究的据,以此来改善人们的生活。‘If you are 30, the thought of being 65 is so horrible that you don’t even want to think about it. You would use the website to see the difficulty of building up a pension later.’‘We don’t want to sp misery around the western world. This is not just a dose of gloom. In fact many things are under your control.‘If you are poor before you retire, you will also be poor later in life, but one thing you can do is adopt a healthier lifestyle.‘It has enormous benefits and almost zero cost.’ He said that even though not everyone may decide to seek a healthier lifestyle, it was important to equip them with the information to do so.He said: ‘People who have a rich social life and a sense of meaning apart from themselves will be happier and live longer.大家是不是现在就想预测自己的年龄?!不过,据说这个网站以及相关务,得到2015年才能建成。它可以为30岁左右的人提供年龄预测,并建一个详尽的生活计划。‘Whether we’ll be able to say that you’re going to be at risk if you have fewer than 10 friends I doubt, because I doubt the data is so black and white- two good friends might be worth 10 drinking companions.‘We will, however, be able to say that people who do have friendly relations do have a meaning to their life, live longer and say they are happier.‘We will also bust the myth that you have to be perfectly healthy. People who have friends and give something to the community can be happy.’Earlier this year, Lord Filkin chaired an inquiry which found that there will be twice as many people aged 85 and above in 2030 as in 2010 and that 10.7m people in Britain are set to retire on an inadequate income.Geoffrey Filkin说:如果你已经30岁了,并且不想让自己60岁的时候过得太辛苦,那么最好来使用这个务。 /201312/269261

  SEOUL PLANS FIRST SATELLITE LAUNCH South Korea plans to make its first satellite launch today in a step that could test North Korea's commitment to recent rapprochement moves and rekindle fears of an Asian arms race.Although North Korea's self-claimed satellite launch in April appeared to have failed, the growing technological prowess demonstrated by firing a long-range rocket unnerved politicians in Seoul. Seoul has also been eager to demonstrate its capabilities as China, India and particularly Japan have moved into space missions.Japan has set next month for the debut launch of a new unmanned resupply spacecraft for the International Space Station.South Korea's government has been unabashed in wanting its space programme expanded with an eye to putting astronauts into space. Russian rockets have in the past carried South Korean satellites and, last year, the first Korean astronaut. Russia has also provided critical assistance for South Korea's rocket programme.North Korea insists its rocket launch in April marked the successful launch of a satellite that is now beaming patriotic anthems from space. The US, South Korea and Japan contest this and say Pyongyang was simply upgrading its ballistic weapons. Stung by UN Security Council sanctions over the launch, Pyongyang has said it expects the UN to show impartiality by condemning South Korea's rocket launch.“North Korea's reaction will be a barometer of how committed it is to the recent positive trend,” said Andrew Gilholm, senior analyst at Control Risks, the security consultancy, referring to a recent thawing of ties between Seoul and Pyongyang.Pyongyang has freed US and South Korean detainees and has pledged to co-operate on investment and tourism projects.After North Korea's launch, politicians in the south complained South Korea was being held back by its adherence to the Missile Technology Control Regime, an informal agreement with the US that restricted southern scientists to working on ballistic missiles with a range of less than 300km. North Korea's rocket flew about 3,000km. /200908/81783

  Apple issued an update for its OS X software for Mac computers to patch a security risk first spotted in its mobile operating system.苹果公司发布了Mac电脑所用OS X软件的更新版本,对旗下移动操作系统中出现的首个安全隐患打上了补丁。The company said the software addresses a flaw that allows a would-be attacker to intercept data to or from a Mac computer, such as email. Last week, Apple issued a similar security fix for its iOS software that runs on the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch.该公司称,更新后的软件消除了一个缺陷,这个缺陷允许潜在攻击者拦截Mac电脑发出或接收的数据,比如电子邮件。上周,苹果针对iPhone、iPad和iPod Touch运行的iOS软件发布了类似的安全补丁。At the time, it said that it was aware that the Mac operating system had a similar security risk and that it was working on a fix.当时苹果公司称,已了解Mac操作系统存在类似的安全隐患,公司正着手开发补丁。In addition to the security fix, the latest OS X update also adds the ability to make audio calls on Apple#39;s FaceTime service as well as other improvements to its Mail software and Safari browser.除了安全补丁之外,最新更新的OS X操作系统也增添了使用苹果公司FaceTime务进行语音通话的功能,同时还对苹果Mail软件和Safari浏览器进行了完善。Even as Apple released the fixes, security firm FireEye said it has discovered a way that a hacker could monitor activity on Apple#39;s mobile software. FireEye said it has created a proof-of-concept monitoring app for iOS 7 devices that can record whatever a user touches on the screen, similar to the way some programs log keystrokes on a computer. FireEye said it is collaborating with Apple to address the issue.尽管苹果发布了补丁,但安全公司FireEye表示,已经发现黑客能使用一种方法来监控苹果移动软件的活动。FireEye称,公司已经针对iOS 7设备创建了一个概念验型监控应用,可以记录用户在屏幕上触碰的任何东西,其方式类似于一些程序记录电脑按键信息的方式。FireEye称,公司正与苹果开展合作以解决相关问题。An Apple spokeswoman declined to comment on FireEye#39;s claim.苹果公司发言人对FireEye的说法不予置评。 /201402/277636。

  

  If asked to give one example of a successful innovation in the past 10 years, what would come to mind first?如果有人让你举出一个过去10年间成功创新的例子,你首先想到会是什么?Apple#39;s shiny cool gadgets like the iPhone and the iPad? Or the emergence of social networking sites such as the Facebook and its various copycats?是iPhone、iPad等炫酷的苹果产品?还是诸如Facebook及众多仿Facebook的社交网络的兴起?We admit these devices and applications have greatly changed our lifestyle. We have never before felt so connected and social networking sites are powerful tools in motivating people to take part in worthy social and civic causes.我们承认,这些设备和应用极大地改变了我们的生活方式。在此之前,我们从未感觉和这世界连接得如此紧密;在激励人们投身到有价值的社会和公民事业这一方面,社交网络发挥着巨大的作用。We churn out one nifty gadget after another, with bigger screens and less buttons. We tweak text and photo-sharing social networking sites to create a new product to share, perhaps audios and s. There is a cloud for us to store and share our files.精巧的发明一个接一个地涌现出来——屏幕越来越大,按键越来越少。我们对可以让人们分享文字和图片的社交网络进行改革,创造了一种可以分享音频、视频的新产品。有了云务,我们可以存储并分享自己的文件。All of these are wonderful, but what about truly groundbreaking and visionary endeavors that will profoundly change the world and human life?所有这一切都棒极了,但真正意义上,什么才是彻底改变世界和人类生活的富有远见的创造性贡献呢?More than a half century ago science fiction envisioned a future where human beings made routine space trips. They lived in colonies in other galaxies or on the seabed.半个多世纪前,科幻小说中设想出这样一个未来:对于人类而言,太空之旅已成为平常事。他们居住在位于其他系或海底的殖民地之上。They made food out of thin air and could live for 300 years. Unfortunately, none of these things will happen in the foreseeable future.他们可以利用稀薄的空气制造食物,并可以存活300年时间。可惜所有这些都不会在短期内实现。Is something wrong with our technological development? Steve Blank, writing in The Huffinton Post, blamed social networking and social media companies such as Facebook for stifling innovation.我们的技术开发是不是出现了什么问题?史提夫·布兰克在《赫芬顿邮报》上发表文章指责像Facebook这样的社交网站和社交媒体公司扼杀了创新。Blank teaches entrepreneurship at Stanford, Columbia and the US#39; National Science Foundation Innovation Corps. He advises people, especially venture capitalists (VC), who want to commercialize inventions.布兰克同时在斯坦福大学、哥伦比亚大学以及美国国家自然科学基金创新研究群体任职,教授创业课程。他会为教授对象提供建议,尤其是那些想将发明商品化的风险投资家们。Blank argues that the success of Facebook and other social networking and social media companies is diverting venture capital from serious research with a more uncertain payoff.布兰克认为Facebook等社交网站和社交媒体公司的成功,使得那些回报不算明朗的“严肃研究”不再受到风险资本的青睐。He is talking about research that truly visionary VCs should be supporting.他所说的严肃研究是那些真正有远见的风险投资家应当全力持的项目。Instead of ;investing in a blockbuster cancer drug that will pay them nothing for 15 years;, Blank says VCs are throwing their money at the latest and possibly greatest social-media idea that can run on smartphones or tablets in hopes of scoring a quick return when it goes big.与其“投资一种可能会一鸣惊人的抗癌药品,十五年间无回报,”布兰克称:“如今风险投资家更喜欢钱投向最新、也可能是最棒的,搭载智能手机和平板电脑上的社交媒体,期望其做大的时候能快速收益。”;In the past,; Blank wrote, ;if you were a successful VC, you could make 0 million (637 million yuan) on an investment in five to seven years. Today, social media startups can return hundreds of millions or even billions in less than three years.;“在过去”,布兰克写道:“如果你是位成功的风险投资家,那些你可以在五至七年内,在一项投资上赚到1亿美元(合6.37亿元人民币)。今天,社交媒体的新秀们能在不到三年的时间里得到数亿甚至数十亿的回报。On TechCrunch.com, Alexander Haislip, a marketing executive at a tech startup, is even more critical.在TechCrunch网站上,一位来自新兴技术公司的销售主管亚力山大·希斯立普对此表现得更为苛刻。Facebook may be doing exciting things with advertising, he acknowledges, but how exciting is advertising, anyway? It#39;s hardly, he complains, ;the best use of the brightest minds of our generation;.他承认或许Facebook在利用广告做一些令人兴奋的事情,可话说回来,广告又能多有趣呢?他抱怨道:“这并没有充分利用我们这一代的聪明才智。”A 1999 report in the Wire magazine predicted: ;The convergence of mobile phones and the Internet, high-speed wireless data access, intelligent networks, and pervasive computing will shape how we work, shop, pay bills, flirt, keep appointments, conduct wars, keep up with our children, and write poetry in the next century.;一则1999年发表于《Wire》杂志的报道预言称:“移动电话,网络,高速无线数据存取,智能网络和普适计算将会决定我们下个世纪的工作、购物、付账、调情、约会、战争、与孩子相处,甚至是写诗的方式。”Thirteen years later, we are aly living in the world the report described. Perhaps it is time for us to ask: What now?十三年后,我们已经生活在了该报道所预言的世界中。也许现在是时候该问问我们自己:“现在该怎么办?” /201206/186547IT COST AN ESTIMATED 0 million to launch Sandra Bullock into space in #39;Gravity#39; and million to turn back the clock in #39;American Hustle.#39; But not all the films up for Hollywood#39;s top honors had such exorbitant budgets. A few of the short-documentary Academy Award nominees were made with cameras that look like something you might bring to the beach--with price tags that won#39;t send you into a sweat.在电影《地心引力》(Gravity)里把桑德拉#12539;布洛克(Sandra Bullock)送进太空估计花了一亿美元(约合人民币6.13亿元),而在《美国骗局》(American Hustle)中让时光倒流花费的资金估计达4000万美元(约合人民币2.45亿元),然而并非所有角逐好莱坞(Hollywood)最高荣誉的电影都有如此高昂的预算。获得奥斯卡奖(Academy Award)最佳纪录短片提名的几部片子所用的拍摄器材,看上去跟你带去海滩的那种设备差不多――其标价签也不会让你出身冷汗。#39;My camera kit literally fits into a duffel bag,#39; said Edgar Barens, the director of #39;Prison Terminal: The Last Days of Private Jack Hall #39; . More compact, affordable equipment doesn#39;t just keep budgets down; it can also enable a different type of movie making. #39;To not have this huge technological thing on your shoulder,#39; explained Mr. Barens, #39;also breaks down that wall,#39; making it easier for him to bond with his subjects.《牢狱的终结:二等兵杰克#12539;霍尔的最后日子》(Prison Terminal: The Last Days of Private Jack Hall)的导演埃德加#12539;贝伦斯(Edgar Barens)说:“我的整套摄影装备用一个行李袋就能装下。”用更紧凑、更实惠的设备拍电影不仅仅能降低预算,还能让人进行一种别开生面的电影拍摄。贝伦斯解释说,不肩扛巨大的技术设备,也照样可以打破藩篱,还能让他更容易与拍摄的对象建立关系。No less impressive than the Oscar-nominated films being made for relatively small sums is what amateurs are able to capture with the smartphones in their pockets. As the price of cinema-quality gear drops and the consumer-level cameras advance, the barrier to making a high-quality film has never been lower. No matter what your skill set or budget, great tools are within reach.业余爱好者用他们兜里的智能手机拍摄的东西,可以给人深刻印象,并不逊于较小成本制作的奥斯卡提名影片。随着电影级画质设备价格的下跌以及消费级摄像器材品质的提升,阻碍拍出高质量电影的门槛已经降到了历史最低点。不管你的综合技能或预算如何,好工具都是唾手可得的。We asked the pros to recommend gear appropriate for smartphone shooters and soon-to-be Oscar-contenders alike.我们请专业人士推荐了以下设备,它们既适合手机党,也能满足即将角逐奥斯卡奖的人。Shoot steady. Nothing screams #39;amateur home movie#39; like shaky, nausea-inducing shots. Conrad Mess, a Spain-based filmmaker, has won several awards at the iPhone Film Festival. His favorite solution is the Lollipod (, lollipod.co.uk ), an ultra lightweight tripod that can also serve as a monopod or boom stand. #39;You can pan or tilt very smoothly with it,#39; he said. #39;And it almost fits in your pocket.#39;稳定拍摄。没有什么能比摇摇晃晃、令人反胃的镜头画面更能表明一部影片的“业余家庭电影”身份了。家住西班牙的电影制作人康拉德#12539;梅斯(Conrad Mess)在iPhone电影节(iPhone Film Festival)上好几次获奖。他最青睐的解决方案是用自拍乐(Lollipod)三脚架(lollipod.co.uk上售价50美元(约合人民币306元)),这种超轻的三脚架也可以当独脚架或万向架使用。“有了它,你可以很平稳地进行摇摄或倾斜镜头,”他说,“而它几乎可以装进你的口袋里。”Keep the camera moving. #39;If you move the camera smoothly, you will get a much better, more #39;pro#39; look,#39; said Mr. Mess. To get this effect, he recommended the Glidetrack Mobislyder (, mobislyder.com ). It includes five different mounts for attaching a smartphone or a small DSLR camera to a 12-inch track. Even though it#39;s relatively short, it can be used to pull off interesting tracking shots. Another solution is the Steadicam Smoothee (0, tiffen.com ), a version of the stabilizing equipment used by the pros that is been scaled down for smartphones and small cameras. Just be sure not to overdo it with the motion. #39;Movements with a cellphone should be mostly slow and smooth,#39; Mr. Mess said.让摄像机动起来。梅斯说:“如果你平稳地移动摄像机,你会有一个更好、更‘专业’的派头。”要取得这种效果,他推荐使用Mobislyder滑轨(mobislyder.com上售价95美元(约合人民币582元))。该滑轨有五种不同的底座,用来把智能手机或小型的数码单反相机(DSLR camera)安装到12英寸(约合30.48厘米)的轨道上。虽然滑轨相对较短,但它可以用来实现有趣的跟踪拍摄。另一种解决方案是使用Smoothee摄影机稳定器(tiffen.com上的售价为150美元(约合人民币919元)),专业人员使用的这种稳定设备已经针对智能手机和小型照相机按比例进行了缩小。拍摄时只需确保动作不要过猛,“用手机拍摄时动作通常都应该做到缓慢、平稳,”梅斯说道。Vary your lenses. The standard lens on your smartphone will only get you so far. For example, when shooting indoor scenes where you want to capture as much of the surroundings as possible, iPhone Film Festival co-founder Ruben Kazantsev said a wide-angle lens is ideal (he used one to film inside a police car for his latest film, #39;Departure.#39;) For iPhone shooters, he recommended the Smart Phocus 3 Lens Bundle (0, smartphocus.com ). It includes a case that gives an iPhone a more camera-like grip and includes three detachable lenses: wide angle, macro and Telephoto.更换你的镜头。你的智能手机上的标准镜头只能让你施展这么一点能力了。iPhone电影节的共同创办人鲁边#12539;卡赞采夫(Ruben Kazantsev)说,比如,当拍摄室内场景时,你想尽量多地把环境都拍下来,使用广角镜头十分理想(他在拍摄最近一部影片《离开》(Departure)时就用了一广角镜头来拍摄警车内部的场景)。对于用iPhone手机拍电影的人,他推荐的是Smart Phocus 3镜头包(Smart Phocus 3 Lens Bundle)(在smartphocus.com上的售价为110美元(约合人民币673元))。这套镜头包可以让iPhone更具相机那样的手感,其中包括三个可拆卸的镜头:广角镜头、微距镜头和远摄镜头。Upgrade your software. For greater control over the iPhone camera than the stock Camera app allows, Messrs. Kazantsev and Mess both use the Filmic Pro (, available for iOS). It allows you to focus on different objects in the frame; increase resolution for a higher quality picture; and achieve special effects, like slow motion and time-lapse .升级你的软件。为了实现对iPhone摄像功能的控制突破现有拍摄应用所允许的范围,卡赞采夫和梅斯都使用了Filmic Pro应用程序(适用于iOS操作系统,售价5美元(约合人民币31元))。该应用让你能够对取景框内的不同目标实现对焦、提高分辨率以获取高质量的画面,还能实现诸如慢动作和延时动态视频这样的特殊效果。Upgrade your camera. For Mike Staniforth, a filmmaker who has shot award-winning films on an iPhone and traditional cameras, a DSLR camera is a must-have for anyone who#39;s serious about movie making, because it delivers a better quality picture, especially in low light. The relatively affordable Canon EOS Rebel T5 EF-S paired with the Canon EF 50 mm f/1.8 II lens (0 and 6, shop.usa.canon.com ) make a good starter kit, he said. But be sure to upgrade the lens when you#39;re y to commit to the art form. #39;Realize that camera bodies come and go each year,#39; he said. #39;The real investment is the glass on the front.#39;升级你的摄像器材。在迈克#12539;斯塔尼福斯(Mike Staniforth)(用iPhone和传统相机拍摄过获奖影片的电影制作人)看来,单反数码相机对于任何严肃对待电影拍摄的人来说都是必备之选,因为它可以拍出更高质量的画面,尤其是在低光照的条件下。价格相对便宜的佳能(Canon)EOS Rebel T5 EF-S单反相机搭配了佳能EF 50 mm f/1.8 II 镜头(在shop.usa.canon.com上的售价分别为550美元(约合人民币3365元和771元)),是很好的入门套装器材,他说。不过当你准备要投身这门艺术的时候,一定要升级你的镜头。“要知道机身每年都在更新换代,”他说,“真正该投资的是前面的那块玻璃。”Record better audio. According to several filmmakers, beginners are better off using prerecorded music for their films than trying to record live dialogue--mainly because the quality of built-in microphones on smartphones and camcorders aren#39;t up to the task. But if you want an affordable way to capture intelligible dialogue, Mr. Staniforth recommended the Zoom H1 (0, zoom.co.jp ). This stand-alone digital recorder also functions as a stereo external mic for a camera, and can be attached using an optional hot-shoe mount.录制更好的声音。据好几位电影制作人说,初学者最好为他们的电影配用预先录制好的音乐,而不是现场录制对话――主要是因为智能手机和便携式摄像机上内置的麦克风质量无法达到任务要求。但如果你想找一种经济实惠的方式录制清晰可辨的对话,斯塔尼福斯推荐使用Zoom H1录音笔(在zoom.co.jp上的售价为100美元(约合人民币612元))。这款独立操作的数字录音设备还可以用作摄像机的外接立体声麦克风,用一个选配的热插拔底座就可以与摄像机实现连接。Stretch time. Time-lapse is another technique that can take amateur to the next level. Filmmaker Jeffrey Karoff used it for his Oscar-nominated documentary short, #39;CaveDigger,#39; by leaving an old DSLR camera and a Canon TC-80N3 Timer Remote Controller (0, shop.usa.canon.com ) with one of his subjects. Although this model is only compatible with Canon cameras, #39;timer remote controls#39; are available for other brands of camera.延长时间。延时拍摄是另一种让业余级别视频得以提升水平的技术。电影制作人杰弗里#12539;卡洛夫(Jeffrey Karoff)在他获奥斯卡最佳纪录短片提名的《挖穴人》(CaveDigger)中使用了这种技术,他用一台旧的数码单反相机和一台佳能TC-80N3遥控计时器(在shop.usa.canon.com上的售价是210美元(约合人民币1,285元))对他的一个拍摄对象进行了长时间拍摄。虽然这种型号的遥控计时器只兼容佳能相机,但其它相机品牌的“遥控计时器”也是有售的。Frame your shot...with an app. To get a sense of what a shot will look like using different lens configurations and settings, Kieran Crilly, director of photography for the Oscar-nominated short documentary #39;The Lady In Number 6: Music Saved My Life,#39; uses the Artemis Director#39;s Viewfinder app (, available for Android and iOS). #39;You tell it what camera and what lens you are on, and it shows you what the frame will look like,#39; he said. #39;It#39;s handy when you#39;re scouting.#39;用应用软件查看画面构图。为了弄清在不同的镜头配置及参数设置条件下拍摄的画面会是什么样子,奥斯卡最佳纪录短片获奖提名影片《6号屋的女人:音乐拯救我的生命》(The Lady In Number 6: Music Saved My Life)的摄影指导基兰#12539;克里利(Kieran Crilly)使用了Artemis Director#39;s Viewfinder应用程序(售价30美元(约合人民币184元),安卓(Android)和iOS系统的均有售)。“你告知程序你使用是哪种相机和什么镜头,它会给你显示画面构图会是什么样子,这真是非常方便”他说。Track the sun. According to Mr. Crilly, another popular app among DPs is Sun Seeker ( for Android, for iOS), which will map out the sun#39;s trajectory using your smartphone#39;s camera, GPS and compass. #39;If you#39;re going to set up a shoot and you#39;re not sure if the sun is going to come in, it#39;s a really useful tool,#39; he said.追踪太阳。据克里利说,在数据处理中大受欢迎的另一款应用程序是Sun Seeker(安卓版的售价6美元(约合人民币37元),iOS版的售价7美元(约合人民币43元)),它会利用你智能手机上的摄像头、全球定位系统(GPS)和罗盘绘制出太阳的轨迹。他说:“如果你打算布置场景进行拍摄而你又不确定阳光是否会照射进来,这款应用真的是一个十分有用的工具。”Get a pro-grade camera that won#39;t blow your budget. At least two of the films nominated for best short documentary at this Sunday#39;s Academy Awards--#39;The Lady In Number 6#39; and #39;CaveDigger#39;--were shot on a camera that cost less than ,500: the Canon 5D, the latest model of which is the Mark III (,400, shop.usa.canon.com ). Its price point is almost unheard of. #39;To have that quality on a consumer level was really something brand new,#39; said Mr. Karoff. That said, the lens is what#39;s key. #39;It doesn#39;t matter how good a camera sensor is, you need good glass to get the best from it,#39; said Mr. Staniforth. To shoot #39;The Lady In Number 6,#39; Mr. Crilly used a Canon EF 24-70mm f/2.8L II USM lens (,299, shop.usa.canon.com ). #39;That really is kind of the hero lens that most people tend to take out on docs,#39; he said. But to soften the Canon 5D#39;s ultra-crisp image, Mr. Crilly also employed filters, in this case, the Tiffen 4x5.65 Soft/FX 1 Filter (1, tiffen.com ) and Schneider 4x5.65 Classic Soft 1 Filter (5, schneideroptics.com ).买一台不会打破你的预算的专业级相机。获得上周日奥斯卡奖最佳纪录短片提名的影片中至少有两部――《6号屋的女人》和《挖穴人》――是用价格不到3,500美元(约合人民币21,450元)的相机拍摄的:佳能5D,其最新的型号是Mark III(在shop.usa.canon.com上的售价是3,400美元(约合人民币20,838元))。这样的零售价格几乎闻所未闻。卡洛夫说:“在消费级的相机上拍出那样的画质的确是一件新鲜的事情。”尽管如此,关键还是在于镜头。“不管相机传感器有多好,你需要好的镜头才能将它发挥到极致,”斯塔尼福斯说。在拍摄《6号屋的女人》时,克里利使用了佳能的EF 24-70mm f/2.8L II 超声波马达(USM)镜头(在shop.usa.canon.com上的售价为2,299美元(约合人民币14,090元))。他说:“这真是大多数拍摄纪录片的人会想要使用的那种超级镜头。”但是为了柔化佳能5D超锐的图像,克里利还使用了滤镜,在拍摄这部影片时用的是天芬(Tiffen) 4x5.65 柔光/FX 1滤镜(在tiffen.com上的售价为431美元(约合人民币2,641元))和施耐德(Schneider) 4x5.65经典柔光(Classic Soft)1滤镜(在schneideroptics.com上的售价为365美元(约合人民币2,237元))。Invest in a quality mic. At this level, you#39;re going to want to record usable audio and ambient sound, and a mic like the Sennheiser ME66 (0 with power module, sennheiser.com ) will help you pull that off. It#39;s what Mr. Barens, the director of #39;Prison Terminal,#39; used when shooting his Oscar-nominated film at the Iowa State Penitentiary. #39;It#39;s directional enough to be crisp,#39; he said, #39;but not too shot-gunny that it#39;s hyper crisp on one person only.#39;投资购买高品质的麦克风。在这一阶段,你会希望录制可用的音频及周围的声音,像森海塞尔(Sennheiser) ME66(在sennheiser.com上带电源模块、售价500美元(约合人民币3,064元))的这种麦克风会祝你一臂之力。该麦克风正是《牢狱的终结》的导演贝伦斯在爱荷华州监狱(the Iowa State Penitentiary)拍摄他这部奥斯卡提名影片时使用的那款。“它的定向性能足以保声音的清晰,”他说,“但又不像猎的声音那样只有一个人的声音是超级清晰的。”Tailor your lighting. The pros customize their light sources to the shoot. For the lowlight alleyway shots in the Oscar-nominated short documentary #39;Facing Fear,#39; director of photography Svetlana Cvetko, used the battery-powered Bescor LED-95DK2 Dual LED Light Kit (0, bescor.com ). But she lighted her interviews with the more expensive Kino Flo Diva-Lite 400 Universal Fluorescent Light Fixture (,233, including lamps, kinoflo.com ).量身定做你的照明设备。专业人士都是定制他们拍片用的光源设备。为拍摄光照度低的小巷场景,奥斯卡最佳纪录短片提名影片《直面恐惧》(;Facing Fear)的摄影指导斯维特兰娜#12539;茨韦特科(Svetlana Cvetko)使用了用电池供电的Bescor LED-95DK2双LED灯组套件(在bescor.com上的售价为200美元(约合人民币1,226元))。但她在接受采访时使用了更昂贵的Kino Flo Diva-Lite 400通用荧光灯照明设备(Universal Fluorescent Light Fixture)(在kinoflo.com上含灯管的售价为1,233美元(约合人民币7,557元))。Make your rig portable. The downside of being able to fit your gear into a bag is having to carry it all yourself. Mr. Karoff recommended the LowePro Pro Runner x450 AW (0, lowepro.com ) because it has wheels and, critically, backpack straps: #39;That was important because we did a lot of hiking into the hills.#39;让你的装备携带轻便。用一个包装下所有设备的缺点,就是所有的东西你得自己扛。卡洛夫推荐乐摄宝(LowePro)Pro Runner x450 AW摄影包(在lowepro.com上的售价为370美元(约合人民币2,268元)),因为它装有滚轮,关键的是,它有背包肩带:“这很重要,因为我们到山中徒步的次数很多。” /201403/279620

  

  Facebook more than doubled its profits in the second quarter as the social media giant continued to reap the rewards of a fast growing mobile ad business.Facebook第二财季的利润增长超过一倍,快速增长的移动广告业务正在给这家社交媒体巨头带来持续的回报。In an earnings release Wednesday, Facebook reported quarterly profits of 1 million, more than double the same period a year earlier, or 30 cents per share.在周三公布的财报中,Facebook上一财季的利润为7.91亿美元,同比去年翻了不止一番,合每股收益30美分。Facebook’s revenue grew 61%, to .9 billion, topping Wall Street’s estimate of .8 billion.Facebook的营收增长了61%,为29亿美元,超出了华尔街28亿美元的预期。CEO Mark Zuckerberg expressed his satisfaction with the company’s second-quarter results, saying in statement that “our community has continued to grow, and we see a lot of opportunity ahead as we connect the rest of the world.”公司CEO马克o扎克伯格对第二财季的表现表示满意,他在声明中说道:“我们的社区仍在持续增长,随着我们与世界其他地区的联系日益紧密,我们将迎来更多机遇。”Nearly .7 billion of the company’s revenue this past quarter came from advertising, with roughly 62% of that total coming from mobile ads. That percentage is up from last year’s second quarter, when mobile ad sales made up 41% of Facebook’s advertising revenue. Facebook also said the number of its monthly active users increased 14% year-over-year to 1.32 billion, while its mobile monthly active users jumped 31% to 1.07 billion.公司上一财季的收入中,约有27亿美元来自广告业务,其中62%来自移动广告。该比例同比增长明显,去年第二财季,移动广告销售占Facebook广告总收入的41%。此外,Facebook表示其每月活跃用户量同比增长了14%,达到13.2亿人,而每月活跃移动用户量增长了31%,达到10.7亿人。Researcher eMarketer said in March that Facebook managed to increase its share of the billion U.S. mobile ad industry to 17.5% last year from just 5.4% in 2012. Zuckerberg’s company is expected to keep expanding its share of the market this year as the social media site continues to chip away at rival Google’s own hold on the market. The online search giant held about half of the mobile ad market in the U.S. last year, but eMarketer expects that stake to shrink this year.三月份,市场调查公司eMarketer的研究人员曾表示,去年,在价值180亿美元的美国移动广告市场,Facebook成功将份额从2012年的5.4%扩大到17.5%。今年,扎克伯格的公司将继续蚕食竞争对手谷歌(Google)的市场份额。去年,在线搜索巨头谷歌几乎占领了美国移动广告市场的半壁江山,但eMarketer预计,谷歌今年的市场份额将会缩水。Facebook’s stock closed Wednesday up 2.9%, before the earnings report. In after-hours trading, following the results, the company’s shares rose another 4% to just over .在周三公布财报之前,Facebook的股票在收盘时上涨了2.9%。而在财报公布之后的盘后交易中,公司股票又上涨了4%,达到每股74美元。 /201407/314740

  Nothing captures how fashionable the startup has become quite like crowdfunding. The craze for raising contributions via websites like Kickstarter and Indiegogo is helping to launch companies from scooter manufacturers to lightbulb vendors to filmmakers.没有什么比众筹更能说明创业的火爆了。很多人疯狂地通过Kickstarter和Indiegogo等网站资助别人搞创业,接受资助的企业有中既有做脚踏车的,也有做电灯泡的,甚至还有拍电影的。Now, even nuclear fusion is game.现在,就连研究核聚变的都上了这条船。Yes, the Holy Grail of cheap, clean, safe, plentiful, low-carbon energy that has remained 40 years in the future since scientists proposed it over half a century ago has entered the crowdsourcing era. International government projects like ITER in France and the National Ignition Facility in California may have spent billions of dollars in pursuit of the technology, but that doesn’t mean there can’t be a little grassroots action, too.核能由于具有廉价、清洁、安全、低碳、用之不竭的特点而被喻为能源中的“圣杯”。自从半个多世纪前,科学家们提出利用核能的设想以来,有40多年的时间里,核能在我们眼中似乎都是未来才能享受到的福利。如今这种“高大上”的能源也终于进入了众包时代。虽然有些核能项目动辄要花费几十亿美元,比如法国的国际热核实验反应堆(ITER)和美国加州的美国国家点火装置(National Ignition Facility),但是这并不意味着在核能领域就完全没有草根阶层可以施展拳脚的空间。LPP Fusion, a tiny company based in Middlesex, N.J., launched in May an Indiegogo campaign to raise 0,000—loose change in this business—that it believes will help it reach a major fusion development milestone in a year and commercialize fusion reactors by 2020.美国新泽西州米德尔塞克斯市的一家叫LPP Fusion的小公司今年五月在Indiegogo上发起了一项募集20万美金的活动。虽然20万美金在这个行业里微乎其微,但这家公司相信,这笔钱能帮助它在一年之内完成核聚变领域的一项具有里程碑意义的研究。这样,到2020年,它的研究成果就可以转化为核聚变反应堆。LPP (it stands for “Lawrenceville Plasma Physics“) is representative of a new class of companies emerging to address the world’s energy crisis: Nuclear startups. Dozens of small new reactor companies are either chasing the elusive fusion dream or pursuing fission designs that trump those on the market today. All are promising to deliver a knock-out blow to the carbon-intensive fossil fuels that bedevil the world with environmental impact and volatile geopolitics and economics. Many of these innovative firms are positioning their reactors not just for electricity, but also to provide clean heat for high temperature industrial processes and for water desalination.LPP公司(全名意为“劳伦斯维尔等离子物理公司”)代表了一群致力于解决全球能源问题的创业公司——即核能创业公司。现在有好几十家规模较小的新型反应堆公司要么在继续研究晦涩的聚变问题,要么在绞尽脑汁地设计优于市场现有方案的裂变反应堆。所有这些公司最终都想来一个“一鸣惊人”,彻底取代给人类造成了深重的环境影响和地缘政治冲突的化石能源。很多创业公司的新型反应堆不仅致力于提供电力,还致力于为各种高温工业流程提供清洁的热能,以及用于海水淡化等造福人类的事业。While LPP might be the only crowdfunded member of the group, it is determined like its young peers to shake up the staid nuclear industry. Reactor designs have not fundamentally changed since utilities first connected fission machines to the grid in the 1950s, marking a conservatism that has mired nuclear in the era of black-and-white television while colorful possibilities abound. The startups aim to brighten the palette.尽管LPP可能是核能创业公司中唯一一个靠众筹来拉资金的公司,但它也像它的小兄弟们一样,立志要把死气沉沉的核能行业搅得风生水起。自从上世纪50年代,科学家们第一次把裂变反应堆接入到输电网络时起,直到现在,核反应堆的设计都没有任何根本性的改良。这种保守主义做法就像在黑白电视时代的末期,尽管持色显像的技术已经四处开花,但厂商仍然抱着黑白电视拒绝进步一样。今天的这些核能创业公司就是要让核能板块“亮”起来。For LPP, that would mean not only delivering fusion—melding atoms together rather than fission’s waste-creating process of splitting them apart—but it would also eliminate the time-honored need for costly turbines and generators. Nuclear power, including most fusion concepts, functions mechanically the same way fossil fuel plants do by creating heat to produce steam to drive a turbine. LPP is working on a type of fusion called “aneutronic” that emits charged particles for electricity.对于LPP公司来说,这意味着它不仅仅要研究出可控核聚变方案(而不是产生有害废物的核裂变反应),还要取消这个过程中历来对于汽轮机和发电机的需求——核能(包括大多数核聚变方案)的基本原理与化石燃料发电厂的原理是一致的,都是先产生热能,然后产生蒸汽,然后驱动汽轮机发电。而LPP公司研究的一种核聚变形式又叫做“无中子核聚变”,可以释放带电粒子来发电。“The nuclear industry is stuck using the same method for making electricity that utilities have used since the days of Thomas Edison—generate heat to make steam to drive a turbine and generator,” says Eric Lerner, president of LPP Fusion. “We can change all that. We can convert energy directly into electricity and slash costs.”LPP Fusion公司总裁埃里克o勒那说:“核能行业的发电方法还停留在爱迪生那个时代——通过发热产生蒸汽来驱动汽轮机和发电机。而我们可以改变这一点,我们可以把能源直接转变为电能,同时大量削减成本。”First, he’ll need the 0,000 he seeks on Indiegogo (he has until July 5 to raise it), which would buy him some fancy new beryllium electrodes that would withstand rigors far better than the copper variety that LPP has been using. He hopes to install them by the end of this year in his experimental fusion reactor, which Lerner operates at the Friendly Storage premises in Middlesex, a place otherwise full of surplus boxes and furniture.首先,勒那需要在Indiegogo上募集到20万美元,用来购买比LPP正在使用的铜电极更能经受极端情况考验的铍电极。勒那希望在年底前将铍电极安装在LPP那台试验性的聚变反应堆上,这个反应堆设置在米德尔塞克斯市的一处库房里,那个地方原本堆满了箱子和家具。Lerner is boldly confident that the beryllium would by the middle of next year enable his lab to overcome the problem that has vexed fusion projects forever: It would harness more energy out of its reactor than what goes into it. Additional financing might then rush in. LPP will need million in total, virtually nothing next to the nearly billion that ITER has budgeted for only the next 10 years of an expected 30 years of construction and development of a 20-story “tokamak” facility.勒那相信,在铍电极的帮助下,到明年中旬,他的实验室将克一个长久以来一直困扰着核聚变研究的难题,让我们从核聚变反应堆中获得的能源超过我们投入的用于点燃反应堆的能源。如果试验成功的话,届时可能会有大量资金涌入。LPP的研究总共要花费5000万美金,听起来倒是不少,但相比之下ITER的核聚变项目预计需要30年的建设时间,光是头10年的预算就高达180亿美元,还要建筑一个20层楼“托卡马克”装置。这样看来,LPP的5000万美金简直太便宜了。With the financing, Lerner believes that by 2020 he could license the mass-production of small 0,000-to-0,000 fusion machines—each the size of a one-car garage—with a capacity of 5 megawatts, enough to power 3,000 houses.勒那相信,凭借这笔资金,到2020年的时候,他的公司将能够量产单价在30万到50万美元之间的小型核聚变发电机。每台这种发电机的尺寸只有一个停车位那么大,发电量达到500万瓦特,足够持3000个家庭的用电量。If only he had the wherewithal of rival fusion startup Tri-Alpha Energy, which has rounded up over 0 million from Goldman Sachs, Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen, and Russian state-owned company Rusnano, among others. Like LPP, Irvine, Calif.-based Tri-Alpha hopes to develop an aneutronic machine that delivers electricity without using turbines.可惜LPP的后盾远远不及竞争对手Tri-Alpha能源公司。这家公司已经从高盛(Goldman Sachs)、微软(Microsoft)共同创始人保罗o艾伦、俄罗斯国有企业Rusnano等投资人处融到了1.4亿美元资金。像LPP一样,这家位于加州尔湾市的核能创业公司也希望开发出一台无中子核聚变发电机,从而不需要借助汽轮机也能发电。ITER and NIF, the government groups, are taking a more “conventional” fusion approach, aspiring to drive turbines with heat released by fusing isotopes of hydrogen. (In contrast, an aneutronic process tends to fuse standard hydrogen and boron.) So, too, are a number of startups that believe they can crack fusion long before the big science projects do by developing smaller machines (NIF’s facility is 3 football fields long and 10 stories tall) and deploying different technologies.ITER和NIF这两大政府机构则采取了更加“传统”的核聚变方案,也就是通过融合氢的同位素氘和氚和释放热量,从而驱动汽轮机发电。(相比之下,无中子核聚变倾向于将标准的氢与硼进行融合)。此外还有一大批创业公司相信,他们可以比这些举倾国之力的大科学项目提前研究出可控核聚变技术,并且开发出小型的核聚变发电机(NIF的核聚变设施有3个足球场那么大,10层楼高)。“We liken it to the Human Genome Project or SpaceX, where large government programs were ultimately outrun by more nimble and more practical innovation in the private sector,” notes Nathan Gilliland, CEO of General Fusion near Vancouver, Canada. General Fusion has raised million from sources including the Canadian oil company Cenovus and Jeff Bezos, Amazon’s chief executive.总部位于加拿大温哥华附近的通用聚变(General Fusion)公司的CEO南森o吉利兰德指出:“我们可以把它与人类基因组计划或太空探索技术公司(Space X)做一下比较,因为在后两者的领域中,大型政府性项目最终也是被私人领域的更灵活、更实用的创新超越了。”通用聚变公司从加拿大石油公司Cenovus和亚马逊(Amazon)CEO杰夫o贝佐斯等投资人那里融得3200万美元资金。As intriguing as fusion is, there is probably more startup activity in fission, where novel approaches promise great improvements over the industry’s addiction to fissioning solid uranium fuel rods then cooling and moderating them with water.虽然核聚变的前景非常诱人,但更多的创业公司可能活跃在核裂变领域,他们研究的一些新方法比行业现有的对铀燃料棒进行裂变然后用水冷却、稳定的方法要先进得多。A host of startups are experimenting with different approaches including the use of liquid fuel, the use of solid fuel with different shapes (such as bricks or pebbles), and the use of alternative coolants and moderators such as salts and gases. Many of the designs draw on ideas that politics suppressed decades ago. Some, like Bill Gates-chaired TerraPower in Bellevue, Wash., are designing “fast reactors” that don’t moderate neutrons. Some envision using the element thorium instead of uranium.很多公司正在围绕新型的核裂变方法展开试验,比如使用液态燃料,或是使用不同形状的固态燃料(如砖型或卵型),以及使用盐或气体作为冷却剂与缓和剂等等。许多设计都吸收了几十年前不被政府允许的理念。比如由比尔o盖茨任董事长的泰拉能源公司(TerraPower)正在设计一种不需要对中子进行缓和的“快速反应堆”。有些公司则设想利用钍元素来代替铀作为裂变燃料。Between them, they portend leaps in safety, cut way down on nuclear waste, use “waste” as fuel, minimize weapons proliferation risks, slash costs and tremendously boost efficiencies. Many fit the “small modular” form that enables mass production and affordable incremental power. (Oregon startup NuScale Power recently secured 7 million in federal funds to develop a small but comparatively conventional reactor.)很多创业公司的方案在提高核裂变安全性、大大减少核废料、变“废物”为燃料、最大程度降低武器化风险、降低成本和提高效率方面都具有广阔的前景。许多方案都具有“小型模块化”的特征,能够满足量产和经济性发电的需要。(俄勒冈州的创业公司NuScale能源公司最近获得了2.17亿美元的联邦基金,用于研发一种小型的、但相对传统的核反应堆。)“There is a growing market pull for innovation in the nuclear space, so you’re beginning to see a blossoming of startup companies doing different things in nuclear,” says Simon Irish, CEO of startup Terrestrial Energy, Mississauga, Canada, which is developing a “molten salt” reactor (MSR) based on liquid fuel.加拿大米西索加市创业公司Terrestrial Energy的CEO西蒙o艾里什指出:“市场对核能领域创新的拉动力越来越强。所以我们开始看到,很多在核能领域从事不同研究的创业公司如雨后春笋般涌现出来。”艾里什的公司正在研发一种基于液态燃料的“熔盐”反应堆(MSA)。In the U.S., Russ Wilcox, CEO of Cambridge, Mass.-based MSR developer Transatomic Power, implores the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to broaden its focus beyond conventional reactor safety, which he says “freezes progress.”在美国,总部位于马萨诸塞州剑桥市的MSR开发公司Transatomic Power首席执行官拉斯o威尔克斯正在请求美国核管理委员会(the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission)放宽对传统核反应域安全的限制,称这种限制“冻结了进步”。Many observers believe that countries other than the U.S., such as Canada and China, will deploy first. Beijing is funding innovative Chinese fission projects, with collaboration from the U.S. DOE. Meanwhile, Western companies seek funds. Like Cenovus at General Fusion, more oil companies might pony up, because they want clean heat to process petroleum. As Fortune reported last month, a lack of industry funding appears to have slowed progress in DOE’s mission to develop an advanced reactor.许多观察人士认为,除了美国之外,加拿大和中国等国有望成为第一批部署新型核能技术的国家。中国政府正在美国能源部的协助下大力投资新型核裂变项目。同时像Cenovus公司在通用聚变公司所扮演的角色一样,更多石油公司可能会投资核能项目,因为他们也需要清洁的热能来进行石油加工。正如《财富》杂志上月报道的那样,由于缺乏行业投资的缘故,美国能源部开发一个先进的核反应堆的计划似乎已经放缓。LPP Fusion doesn’t seem to be worried. For the young company, the next financing stage could simply be a matter of warming up the crowd.LPP的核聚变研究则似乎不用担心钱的事。这家年轻公司的下一轮融资可能很容易就点燃大众的热情。 /201407/312875。

  

  

  Hats off to scientists in New York, who have managed to produce a cheap ‘invisibility cloak’ effect using ily available materials and a lot of clever thinking. Through a combination of optical lenses, any object that passes behind a certain line of sight can be made to disappear from view.让我们向纽约的科学家们脱帽致敬吧。他们用富于奇思妙想的头脑,通过日常的既有材料制造出了低成本的“隐身斗篷”效果。通过一个各种凸透镜组装起来的装置,在特定的视角下,任何物体都可以从观察者的眼前消失。“People have been fascinated with cloaking for a very long time,” said John Howell, a Professor of Physics. “It’s recently been a really popular thing in science fiction and Harry Potter… I think people are really excited about the prospect of just being invisible.”“长久以来,人们一直对隐身术非常着迷。”物理学教授约翰·霍威尔说,“近年来,在科幻小说和《哈里·波特》系列里经常出现隐身术……我想,人们会对未来能够隐形的设想感到非常兴奋。” “From what we know this is the first cloaking device that provides three-dimensional, continuously multidirectional cloaking. I imagine this could be used to cloak a trailer on the back of a semi-truck so the driver can see directly behind him. It can be used for surgery, in the military, in interior design, art.”“就我们所知来看,这是世界上第一件能使人三维立体的,持续的,多个方向上隐藏身型的隐身斗篷。我想,这种装置可以使用在半卡车的拖车上,这样驾驶员就能直接看到他车后的路况了。它还可以用于医疗用途,军事用途,用于室内设计和艺术领域等等。”What makes this system so interesting is that it’s simple, inexpensive and capable of working at multiple angles, as long as the object remains inside the series of lenses. It cost the scientists ,000 to get all of the necessary equipment together, but it can be done more cheaply. A patent is pending for their invention but the scientists have put together instructions on making your own Rochester Cloak at home for less than 0.这种装置最吸引人的地方在于,它构造简单、成本低廉,能够在多个视角下起作用,只要被观察的物体保持在这种凸透镜组装装置的视域之内。科学家们花费了一千元美金来凑齐所有必需的装置,但是它的制造成本可以大幅降低。这种发明是否能申请专利还悬而未决,不过,科学家们已经写出了使用说明书,让你花上不到100美元的费用,就能够在自己家里做出一个隐身斗篷。” /201410/338820

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